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BAIGANWADI

LAND USED FOR BRINJAL FARMING IN EARLIER TIMES AND HENCE THE
NAME
LOCATION:-
GOVANDI(EAST)
NEAR DEONAR DUMPING GROUND ( LARGEST IN MUMBAI)
WARD M
BETWEEN SHIVAJI NAGAR 1 AND MANKHURD, MUMBAI, MAHARASHTRA
INTRODUCTION
 What is a Slum?
Life in informal settlements.

 What is an Informal Settlement?


The communities that are not in compliance with building norms and property and urban
planning regulations are often given as the main reason for qualifying them as “informal”.
Also defined as “irregular”, they can easily be called “illegal”, and their inhabitants
subsequently criminalized, displaced, and persecuted.

 Slums represent one of the main types of housing in many growing urban cities. The effects
of poverty are related to the growth of slums.

As informal (and often illegal) housing, slums are often defined by:
• Unsafe and/or unhealthy homes (e.g. lack of windows, dirt floor, leaky walls and roofs)
• Overcrowded homes
• Limited or no access to basic services: water, toilets, electricity, transportation
• Unstable homes: weak structures are often blown away or destroyed during storms and
earthquakes
• No secure land tenure (i.e. the land rights to live there).
Why Mumbai?

 The advent of 19th century saw Mumbai


become the hub of textile and emerge as the
commercial capital of India
 Workers from various parts of the country
flocked to Mumbai and stayed in informal
housing – the slums.
 The city continued to attract more and more
people in search of a livelihood, density of
slums in Mumbai continued to increase.
SLUMS IN
M(EAST) WARD
WHICH
COMPRISES OF
MANKHURD
AND GOVANDI

BAIGANIWADI
SLUM
CASESTUDY
LOCATION

MAP OF MUMBAI
SHOWING M(EAST)
WARD
M (EAST) WARD, GOVANDI
Located on the north-east edge of Mumbai. it has a coastline and a high
mountain on one side.
A lot of land marshy and under mangrove cover.
Treated as a periphery where hazardous industries could be located.
Burma Shell factory set up in the 1940s; a garbage dumping ground (Deonar
Dumping) close to the marshy areas.
Due to the hill that provided strategic security, a naval base was set up in the
Second World War. Also became home to institutions (like Tata Institute of
Social Sciences) and populations (beggars’ home etc).
Informal divisions of land and construction were initiated around the
industries.
These features of the ward made it a suitable location for polluting and
hazardous industries.
Low density area, unfit for dense development according to urban planners.
All this leading to one of the biggest slums of Mumbai.
 Transforming the Slum through creation of Property Market: A Case Study of M-ward in Mumbai
People, Places and Infrastructure: Countering urban violence and promoting justice in Mumbai
BAIGANWADI

 Emerged around 1970


 Shift of slaughterhouse from Bandra to Deonar.
 Relocated the butchers to Baiganwadi.
 More people (largely Dalits and Muslims)
relocated around the dumping ground,
following acute droughts in rural Maharashtra
and other parts of the country.
 Poor migrants from north Indian states flocked
in search for livelihood.
MIGRATION
 Mostly the people living there have
migrated 70-50 years back, and some
have migrated just a few years back.
 58% of people have migrated from
Uttar Pradesh,and 23%have migrated
from nearby places of Mumbai.
 While 10% of people have migrated
from karnataka, and 9% of people had
came from other state.
REASONS FOR MIGRATION
•Some people from other rural village, or state or from other
background specially from Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka and other
migrated here in terms of good education and better standard of
living area.
••Some
Some people
people migrated
migrated their
their ,because
in search the
of occupation ,to get
slum is located in good
the job
opportunity.
prime location of ghatkopar ,from there their job place is in nerby
place, so they can save their travels money.
•Rent of the houses in this area is very less upto 3000 to 4000 for
1BHK,so most of the people can afford the rent of the house.
RELIGION FOLLOWED
• The religions followed by the
people were mainly Hindu,
Muslims and some other
religions.

• The common language which


was spoken there was
Marathi and Hindi.

• There were 4 small temples


and a mosque.

• At the time of some festival


or Jayanti, daawat is held in
front of the Shiv mandir
Population
 Around 50000 to 100000 people residing in
around 1800 houses and shanties.
 Diverse population with a majority
of Muslims.

Women to Men Ratio

Each family had almost equal ratio of men and women with few
families having slightly higher proportion of men.
There were 2-3 women in each house.
Most of the women were middle aged.
 The women were engaged in daily chores and other
activites for the whole day.
 The eduction and occupation of women depended
largely on the economic background of their family.
 There was no gender discrmination as such.
Education
• The educational qualifications differed as per the
economic conditions of each family.
• The aged women from the age group above 60 yrs were
mostly uneducated or educated till 4th standard.
• Few of them were graduated.
• Most of the middle aged women were educated till 10 th or
12th standard.
• The younger generation and the children were
encouraged to pursue higher education.
• There was no gender discrimination in terms of education.

 Though formal education level was considerably low,


women were trained in household and other skills like
tailoring.
Education
 There are 7 schools in the slums.
 Some of them are Urdu medium and some of them are Marathi
medium.
 The annual fees of the schooling is rs 1500.
 The girls are being educated to the same level, rest it depends on
their wish.
 Mostly everyone around there is tenth grade qualified.
EMPLOYMENT
 Men and women worked in the Godrej
company, BMC, some banks etc.
 Some of them work as peons, clerks,
etc.
 There are cowsheds, buffalo sheds
which provide milk to the area.
 Gober gas is also produced and is a
form of employment here.
 There are venders, small shops, scrap
collecting shops, tailor shops, laundry
shops, etc.
 Some of the women also work as
maids in the local surrounding
buildings.
WATER SUPPLY

 Water is supplied by the BMC and some houses also have


private taps.
 Supply of water is one time for two hours per day
(between 12:00-2:00 pm).
 For BMC taps,(common taps) monthly bill goes 500-800
rupees every three months.
 1 tap serves 8-10 houses, 10 minute / house.
 Water supply is proper but, it comes in intervals.
 BMC pipes reach to the streets.
 Private taps are also provided, but 1 tap for 4 houses, 30
min per house, which charges rupees 300 per month.
 Sometimes people having private taps sell water to other
people
 Pending approval with municipal corporation for
individual taps.
DRAINAGE
 Poor drainage system.
• Corrogated shuts no proper gutters
provided.
• No proper sanitation.
• People through food and garbage in
open gutters and need to clean it by
themselves when the gutters are
blocked.
• No proper sewage in the gutters.
slippery roads due to continuous
water splash from gutter.
• Unfinished water pipe system.
• During rains its very difficult to
maintain the hygiene, as the gutters
are directly facing the houses.
ELECTRICITY

• Electric supply is from bmc.


• 24 hours elctricity. proper electric
supply.
• Electric bill is 500-1000 rupees /
month.
• Hardly 5-10 minutes cut off in a
year.
• People use washing machine,
refrigrator, ac, etc.., in the slums.
PLAN
KITC
• Each house consists of a hall, a
kitchen. HEN
HALL STORA
• Some houses have toilets,
GE
some don’t
• There is a front porch where WASH
water storage and pipes are
kept. PORCH
Side elevation
ENTRY

front elevation
SURROUNDINGS

 The wadi is equipped with a Ration


centre , many general store, many
worshiping places.
 The wadi is well equipped with every
daily neccessity .
IMPACT ON THE HEALTH CONDITIONS AND THE
SURROUNDING OF THE SLUM -

• As the open drains serve as breeding grounds for


mosquitoes and houseflies , and its location is in very
closer proximity to the houses there are high chance
of spread of dengue , malaria , typhoid , dysentery
and cholera .
• Women threw food wastes in the open drain as a
result it served as a attraction place for stray animals
to search for food , thus direct contact of animals
with open drain infected them with various diseases ,
that can further lead to spread diseases among other
healthy animals and it can even drastically effect the
health conditions of the residents in that locality .
Conclusion
 The settlements are very unhygienic. The sewage runs just
bellow the temporary pathways.
 The initial slums were groung floor temporary structures,
and how they are being made G+1 permanent structures.
With an access through a common ladder.