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Module 9 - Parallelism

and Perpendicularity
Objectives:
At the end of the session, the students
are expected to:
 acquaint oneself with the key
concepts of parallelism and
perpendicularity.
Objectives:
 Illustrate parallel and perpendicular
lines
 Demonstrate knowledge and skills
involving angles formed by parallel
lines transversals
 Determine and prove the conditions
under whic lines and segments are
parallel or perpendicular.
Objectives:
 Determine the conditions that make
a quadrilateral a parallelogram and
prove that a quadrilateral is a
parallelogram.
 Use properties of parallel and
perpendicular lines to find measures
of angles, sides, and other quantities
involving parallelograms.
Melody: MAY PULIS SA ILALIM NG TULAY

There’s a … POINT in the subject Geometry.


… on a LINE
… on a PLANE
… on a SPACE
Agree or Disagree?
Directions:
Tick on the appropriate column as to Agree or
Disagree on the given statements. During or
after the session, you may change your responses.
In case, indicate your reason to change on each
applicable item.

You are given 10 minutes to do it.

987432165
10
Time’s up!
“Tayong Dalawa”
Study the figure below

There are two


distinct planes
namely:
plane ACDB
and plane
BDFE.
Analysis
1. What is true about lines k and n on plane ACDB?
2. What other pairs of lines exhibit this
characteristic? What do you call this pair of
lines?
3. Notice that lines p and t on plane BDFE formed a
90⁰ angle. What can you say about these lines?
4. When do you say that lines are perpendicular?
5. There are lines on the figure that do not
intersect even they are extended on both ends.
Give the pair of lines that do not intersect even
they are extended on both ends.
6. Are all these pairs you have given located on the
same plane? Which pairs are on the same plane
and which are not?
7. What do you call these pairs of lines that are on
the same plane and do not intersect even they are
extended on both ends?
8. What about those pairs of lines that are not on the
same plane and do not intersect even they are
extended on both ends?
9. When do you say that a pair of lines is parallel? is
skew?
Let’s Get Techy!
 How many points of intersection are
there?
 What polygon is formed by the segments
determined by these points?
 What do you call this polygon?
 What can you say about this polygon?
 When do we say that a quadrilateral is a
parallelogram?
Analysis

1. When do we say that two lines intersect?


2. How many planes can contain two
intersecting lines?
3. What is true about intersecting lines that
form right angles?
4. When do we say that lines are parallel?
5. How do you differentiate skew lines from
parallel lines?
Pairs of Lines
 Definition: Two lines that intersect to
form a right angle are said to be
perpendicular.
 Definition: Skew lines are non-coplanar
lines.
 Definition: Parallel lines are coplanar
lines that do not intersect.
Perpendicular Lines
Perpendicular Lines
 Theorem: If two lines are perpendicular, then
they form four right angles.

 Theorem: If the angles in a linear pair are


congruent, then the lines containing their sides
are perpendicular.

 Theorem: In a plane, through a point on a given


line there is one and only one line
perpendicular to the given line.
Perpendicular Lines
 Theorem: In a plane, a segment has a
unique perpendicular bisector.
 Theorem: If two angles are adjacent and
complementary, the non-common sides
are perpendicular.
 Theorem: In a plane, if the non-common
sides of adjacent angles are perpendicular
then the angles are complementary.
Parallel Lines
Parallel Lines Cut by a Transversal

Corresponding Angles Interior Angles on the


Same Side of a Transversal

Alternate Interior Angles Alternate Exterior Angles


Parallel Lines
 Definition: A transversal is a line (or any
part of a line, either a ray or a segment) that
intersects coplanar lines (rays or segments)
at different points.

 Definition: Corresponding angles are


pairs of angles, in which one is interior and
the other exterior. They belong to the same
side of the transversal, and do not have the
same vertex.
Parallel Lines
 Definition: Alternate interior (or exterior)
angles are interior (or exterior) angles that do
not belong on the same side of the transversal.

 Axiom: If two parallel lines are cut by a


transversal, the angles formed can have one of
two measures only: one acute and the other
obtuse. All the acute angles are congruent and all
obtuse angles are congruent. Any pair of acute
and obtuse angle is supplementary.
Parallel Lines
 Postulate: When two parallel lines are cut
by a transversal, then each pair of
corresponding angles are congruent.
 Theorem: If two parallel lines area cut by
a transversal, then the alternate interior
angles formed are congruent.
 Theorem: If two parallel lines are cut by a
transversal, then the alternate exterior
angles formed are congruent.
Parallel Lines
 Theorem: If a transversal cuts two parallel
lines, then all pairs of interior angles on the
same side of a transversal are
supplementary.

 Theorem: If a transversal is perpendicular to


one of two parallel lines, then it is
perpendicular to the other.
Proving Lines Parallel
 Postulate: If two lines cut by a transversal
form a pair of congruent corresponding
angles, then the two lines are parallel.
 Theorem: If two lines cut by a transversal
form a pair of congruent alternate interior
angles, then the two lines are parallel.
 Theorem: If two lines cut by a transversal
form a pair of congruent alternate exterior
angles, then the two lines are parallel.
Proving Lines Parallel
 Theorem: If two lines cut by a transversal
form interior angles on the same side of
the transversal that are supplementary,
then the two lines are parallel.
 Theorem: In a plane, if two lines are
perpendicular to the same line, then they
are parallel.
Example:
1. If a transversal cuts two parallel lines, then all pairs of
alternate exterior angles are congruent.
Given: a ∥ b
Prove: 1 and 8, and
2 and 7 are congruent

Statement Reasons
1. a ∥ b 1. Given
2. 1 and 5, and 2 and 6 are 2. Definition of corresponding angles
corresponding angles
3. 1 and 5, and 2 and 6 are 3. If ∥ lines are cut by a transversal, then
congruent corresponding ’s are congruent
4. 5 and 8, and 6 and 7 are 4. Definition of vertical angles
vertical angles
5. 5 and 8, and 6 and 7 are 5. Vertical Angle Theorem
congruent
6. 1 and 8, and 2 and 7 are 6. Transitivity
congruent
Quadrilaterals
Classifications:
 Definition: If a quadrilateral does not have
any pair of parallel sides, it is called a
trapezium.
 Definition: If a quadrilateral has only one
pair of parallel sides, it is called a
trapezoid.
 Definition: If a quadrilateral has two pairs
of parallel sides, it is called a
parallelogram.
Parallelogram
Properties of Parallelogram
 Theorem: Consecutive angles of a
parallelogram are supplementary.
 Theorem: Opposite angles of a parallelogram
are congruent.
 Theorem: In a parallelogram, either diagonal
separates the parallelogram into two
congruent triangles.
 Theorem: Opposite sides of a parallelogram
are congruent.
 Theorem: The diagonals of a parallelogram
bisect each other.
Special Parallelograms
In parallelogram EDGH,

If ED = DG = GH = HE,
If EDG is right,

then parallelogram
then parallelogram
EDGH is a rhombus.
EDGH is a rectangle.

If EDG is right and then parallelogram


ED = DG = GH = HE, EDGH is a square.
Special Parallelograms
 Definition: If all the interior angles of a
parallelogram are right angles, it is called a
rectangle.
 Definition: If all the sides of a
parallelogram are congruent to each
other, it is called a rhombus.
 Definition: If a parallelogram is both a
rectangle and a rhombus, it is called a
square.
Special Parallelograms
 Theorem: The diagonals of a rectangle are
congruent.
 Theorem: The diagonals of a rhombus are
perpendicular to each other.
 Theorem: A diagonal of a rhombus bisects
a pair of opposite angles.
 Theorem: The diagonals of a square are
congruent, perpendicular to each other,
and they bisect the four angles of the
square.
Summary of the Properties of
Parallelograms and Special Parallelograms
Opposite

Opposite angles are


Diagonals
sides
Quadrilaterals

congruent
congruent

perpendicular
All sides

bisect each
congruent

congruent
bisect the
parallel

angles
other
Parallelogram 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Rectangle 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Rhombus 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Square 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Exercises 1:
Directions: Find the value of x and y in each of the
following figures.

x = 60⁰ x = 80⁰
y = 40⁰ y = 10⁰

x = 85⁰ x = 50⁰
y = 95⁰ y = 50⁰
Exercises 2:
Given the following information, tell whether plane ABCD is a
parallelogram or not.

1. AB = CD and segments AB and CD are parallel.


2. mBAD = 94⁰, mABC = 76⁰, mBCD = 94⁰, mADC = 76⁰
3. X is the midpoint of segments AC and BD
4. 1 and 3 are congruent, 2 and 4 are congruent also.
5. AB = CD, AB = 3z+ 6, CD = 5z – 4, BC = 4z + 5, AD = 5z – 2
The mind is
like a
parachute. It
Thank you!
functions best
when open.