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# Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
REGION IV (A) – CALABARZON
Karangalan Village, Cainta, Rizal

## REGIONAL MASS TRAINING OF GRADE 8 MATHEMATICS TEACHERS

ON THE K TO 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM

MODULE 10:
Measures of Central Tendency
and Measures of Variability

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 Lesson 1: Measures of Central
Tendency of Ungrouped Data
 Lesson 2: Measures of Variability of
Ungrouped Data
 Lesson 3: Measures of Central
Tendency of Grouped Data
o Lesson 4: Measures of Variability of
Grouped Data

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Objectives
Lesson 1

## At the end of the session, the students will be

able to:
1. Find the mean, median, and mode of ungrouped
data.
2. Describe and illustrate the mean, median and
mode of ungrouped data.

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Objectives
Lesson 2

## 3. Discuss the meaning of variability

4. Calculate the different measures of
variability of a given ungrouped data; range;
standard deviation and variance.
5. Describe and interpret data using measures
of central tendency and measures of
variablilty.

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Think of This…

## Think of a method of getting the

sum of numbers
(a) 1, 2, 3,…,10
(b) 1, 2, 3,…,17.

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Group 1 & 2
1. Given the following numbers 5, 4, 7, 8, 4, 6,
9 and 3 find the following:
a. Mean
b. Median
c. Mode

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Groups 3 and 4
Karl got the following scores in seven
10-item Math quizzes: 5, 4, 9, 8, 5, 6 and 7.
1. Determine the following:
a. Mean score
b. Median score
c. Modal score

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Group 4
Given the following numbers:
14 11 1 22 12
15 20 6 7 13
23 27 9 12 14
17 16 3 18 5
8 4 24 20 30
1. Suggest a tabulation showing the groupings
(by intervals) of these numbers.
2. Write each number on the interval where it belongs.
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Group 5
Given the following numbers:
13 21 15 9 20 14 18,

## a. Find the mean.

b. Determine the difference of the
mean and each given number.
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Let’s Discuss!
For Group 1 & 2:

## 1. How did you find the activity? How do we call these

values of Mean, Median and Mode?
2. How did you get the value of each measure of central
tendency? Explain each.
3. Compare one value from another. Which two
measures are of very close values?
4. Have you encountered any problem or difficulty in
5. How were you able to overcome such problem or
difficulty?
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Let’s Discuss!
For Group 3 and 4:

## 1. How did you find the activity?

2. What is the value of each of Mean, Median and
Mode?
3. How about the Mean Score, the Median Score and the
Modal Score? Do you have the same answer with
those of number 2 respectively?
4. Have you encountered any problem or difficulty in
5. How were you able to overcome such problem or
difficulty?
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Let’s Discuss!
For Group 4:

## 1. How did you find the activity?

2. What is the basis of your interval used? How many
groups were produced?
3. What do you think this activity imply?
4. Have you encountered any problem or difficulty in
5. How were you able to overcome such problem or
difficulty?

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Let’s Discuss!
For Group 5:

## 1. How did you find the activity?

2. How far/close is the value of each number from the
mean? Enumerate.
3. What do you think this value imply?
4. Have you encountered any problem or difficulty in
5. How were you able to overcome such problem or
difficulty?

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THE STANDARDS REVISITED...

Strand: Statistics
MODULE 10: MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND
MEASURES OF VARIABILITY
Learning Standard
The learner demonstrates understanding and
appreciation of key concepts and principles of
mathematics as applied, using appropriate
technology, in problem solving, critical thinking,
communicating, reasoning, making connections,
representations, and decisions in real life.
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## The learner demonstrates understanding

of key concepts and principles of algebra,
geometry, probability and statistics as applied,
using appropriate technology, in critical thinking,
problem solving, reasoning, communicating,
making connections, representations, and
decisions in real life.

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Content Standard

## The learner demonstrates understanding of the

key concepts of the different measures of tendency,
variability of a given data, fundamental principles of
counting and simple probability.

Performance Standard
The learner computes and applies accurately the
descriptive measures in statistics to data analysis and
interpretation in solving problems related to research,
business, education, technology, science, economics, and
others.
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Learning Competencies

The learner...
1. finds the mean, median and mode of statistical data.
2. describes and illustrates the mean, median and mode
of ungrouped and grouped data.
3. discusses the meaning of variability.
4. calculates the different measures of variability of a
given set of data: (a) range; (b) average deviation;
(c) variance; (d) standard deviation.
5. describes a set of data using measures of central
tendency and measures of variability.

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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

## A. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

𝑥
𝑥=
𝑁
Mean (𝑥) where Σx - the summation of x
N - number of values of x.

Median
(when data are
arranged in ascending where N – number of given data
or descending values)
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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

## A. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

Mode
It is the measure or value which occurs most frequently
in a set of data. It is the value with the greatest frequency.
To find the mode for a set of data:
1. select the measure that appears most often in the
set;
2. if two or more measures appear the same number of
times, then each of these values is a mode; and
3. if every measure appears the same number of times,
then the set of data has no mode.
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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

B. MEASURES OF VARIABILITY

## The Range (R)

The range is the simplest measure of variability.
R=H–L
where R - Range
H - Highest value
L - Lowest value

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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

B. MEASURES OF VARIABILITY
The Average Deviation
The dispersion of a set of data about the average of these
data is the average deviation or mean deviation.
To compute the average deviation of an ungrouped data,
we use the formula:
𝑥−𝑥
𝐴. 𝐷. =
𝑁
where A.D. is the average deviation
x is the individual score
𝑥 is the mean
N is the number of scores
𝑥 − 𝑥 is the absolute value of the deviation from the mean
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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

B. MEASURES OF VARIABILITY
The Standard Deviation
𝑥−𝑥 2
𝑆𝐷 =
𝑁−1
where SD is the standard deviation
x is the individual score
𝑥 is the mean
N is the number of scores
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SUGGESTED PROCEDURE IN PREPARING
A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE

## Consider a list of IQ scores for a gifted

classroom in a particular elementary
school. The IQ scores are:
118, 123, 124, 125, 127,
128, 129, 130, 130, 133,
136, 138, 141, 142, 149,
150, 154.

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SUGGESTED PROCEDURE IN PREPARING
A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE

## Step 1: Figure out how many classes (categories) you need to

consider the general guidelines:

## Use 5 if there are 17 to 32 data in the set,

6 if there are 33 to 64 data in the set,
7 if there are 65 to 128 data in the set,
or in general, consider this:
“The number of classes, k, should be the smallest
integer such that 2k > n, where n is the number of
observations.”

## For the list of IQs above, we picked 5 classes because there

are 17 given data.
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SUGGESTED PROCEDURE IN PREPARING
A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE

## Step 2: Subtract the minimum data value from the

maximum data value. For example, our IQ list above
had a minimum value of 118 and a maximum value of
154,
so: 154 – 118 = 36
Step 3: Divide your answer in Step 2 by the number of
classes you chose in Step 1.
36 / 5 = 7.2
Step 4: Round the number from Step 3 up to a whole
number to get the class width or interval size. Rounded
up, 7.2 becomes 8.
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SUGGESTED PROCEDURE IN PREPARING
A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE

## Step 5: Write down the lower limit of the first class

interval. This should be the nearest number lower
than the lowest value in the data set and a multiple of
the class width. The lowest value is 118 and the
nearest number lower than 118 which is a multiple of
8 is 112.
Step 6: Add the class width from Step 4 to Step 5 to
get the next lower class limit:
112 + 8 = 120

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SUGGESTED PROCEDURE IN PREPARING
A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE

## Step 7: Repeat Step 6 for the other minimum data

or interval size to your minimum data values) until you
have created the number of classes you chose in Step 1.
We chose 5 classes, so our 5 minimum data values are:
152 (144 + 8)
144 (136 + 8)
136 (128 + 8)
128 (120 + 8)
120 (112 + 8)
112
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SUGGESTED PROCEDURE IN PREPARING
A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE

## Step 8: Write down the upper class limits. These are

the highest values that can be in the category, so in
most cases you can subtract 1 from class width and
add that to the minimum data value. For example:
(112 + 8) – 1 = 119
152 – 159
144 – 151
136 – 143
128 – 135
120 – 127
112 – 119
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SUGGESTED PROCEDURE IN PREPARING
A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE

## Step 9: Add a second column for the number of items in

each class, and label the columns with appropriate
IQ (CLASS INTERVAL) Frequency
152 – 159
144 – 151
136 – 143
128 – 135
120 – 127
112 – 119

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SUGGESTED PROCEDURE IN PREPARING
A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE

Step 10: Count the number of items in each class, and put the total
in the second column. The list of IQ scores are: 118, 123, 124, 125,
127, 128, 129, 130, 130, 133, 136, 138, 141, 142, 149, 150, 154.

## IQ (CLASS INTERVAL) Frequency

152 – 159 | = 1
144 – 151 || = 2
136 – 143 |||| = 4
128 – 135 ||||| = 5
120 – 127 |||| = 4
112 – 119 | = 1

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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR GROUPED DATA

## A. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

Mean
To find the mean (𝑥 ) of grouped data using class marks,
𝑓𝑋
𝑥=
𝑓
where: f is the frequency of each class
X is the class mark of the class

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an
DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR GROUPED DATA
To find the mean (𝑥 ) of grouped data using class marks,
𝑓𝑋
𝑥=
𝑓
A. MEASURES OF CENTRALf TENDENCY
where: is the frequency of each class
X is the class mark of the class
Mean
Tomean
To find the find the mean
(𝑥 ) of (𝑥 ) of
grouped grouped
using code using class mar
𝑓𝑑𝑓𝑋
𝑥 = 𝐴. 𝑀. +𝑥 = 𝑖
𝑓 𝑓
where: where:A.M. is the fassumed mean
is the frequency of each cla
f is the X
frequency of each
is the class markclass
of the clas
d is the coded deviation from A.M.
i is the class interval
To find the mean (𝑥 ) of grouped data using code dev
𝑓𝑑
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𝑥 = 𝐴. 𝑀. + 𝑖
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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR GROUPED DATA

## Median OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

A. MEASURES
edian 𝑓
−<𝑐𝑓
Median 𝑀𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛 = 𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑐 𝑓 + 𝑓𝑓 2
𝑖
−<𝑐𝑓
2
𝑀𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛 = 𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑐 + 𝑖2 −<𝑚𝑐𝑐𝑓
𝑀𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛 = 𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑐 𝑓𝑚𝑐+ 𝑖
𝑓𝑚𝑐
where: lbmc is the lower boundary of the median class;
here: lbmc is the lowerf is boundary
the frequencyof the
of median
each class; class;
where: lbmcfrequency
f is the is the lower of boundary
each class; of the median class;
<fcfisisthe thefrequency
cumulative of frequency
each class;of the lower class
<cf is the cumulative
next to frequency
the median ofclass;
the lower class
< is the cumulative frequency of the lower class
nextcffto the
is
mc next
median
the class;of the median class; and
frequency
to the median class;
fmc is the frequency
i is the of the
class median class; and
interval.
f is the frequency of the median class; and𝑡ℎ
i is themcclass interval. 𝑓
i is the class interval.
The median class is the class that contains 𝑓 the
𝑡ℎ
2 𝑡ℎ
quantity.
he median class is the class that contains the quantity.
𝑓
The computed median must be within
The median class is the class that contains the the
2 median class.
quantity.
he computed median must be within the median class. 2
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The computed median must be within the median batangas class.
DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR GROUPED DATA

## A. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

Mode
𝐷1
𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑒 = 𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑜 + 𝐷1 +𝐷2
𝑖

## where: lbmo is the lower boundary of the modal class;

D1 is the difference between the frequencies of
the modal class and the next upper class;
D2 is the difference between the frequencies of
the modal class and the next lower class; and
i is the class interval.

## The modal class is the class with the highest frequency.

If there are two or more classes having the same highest frequency,
the formula to be used is:
Mode = 3(Median) − 2(Mean)
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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR GROUPED DATA

B. MEASURES OF VARIABILITY

Range

## Range = Upper Class Boundary – Lower Class Boundary

of the Highest Interval of the Lowest Interval

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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR GROUPED DATA

B. MEASURES OF VARIABILITY
Variance (σ2)
Variance is the average of the square deviation from the mean.
For large quantities, the variance is computed using frequency
distribution with columns for the midpoint value, the product of the
frequency and midpoint value for each interval, the deviation and
its square; and the product of the frequency and the squared deviation.
To find variance of a grouped data, use the formula:
2
𝑓 𝑋 − 𝑥
𝜗2 =
𝑓−1
where: f is the class frequency;
X is the class mark;
𝑥 is the class mean; and
𝑓 is the total frequency of thebatangas
median class.
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DEFINITION/FORMULA OF MEASURES FOR GROUPED DATA

B. MEASURES OF VARIABILITY
Standard Deviation (s)
The standard deviation is considered the best indicator
of the degree of dispersion among the measures of variability
because it represents an average variability of the distribution.
Given the set of data, the smaller the range, the smaller the
standard deviation, the less spread is the distribution.

𝑠 = 𝜗2, or

𝑓 𝑋−𝑥 2
𝑠=
𝑓−1
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What Can You Give? Share…

Open
Discussion
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## 1. Select a learning competency from

Module 10.
2. Prepare five (5) questions of different
levels: 2 Knowledge, 1 Process, 1
Understanding and 1 Product/
Performance. Make a rubric
for the last item.
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Words to live by before you leave:

## “Anuman ang pagkakaiba-iba at pagkakawatak-

watak ng mga iniisip, saloobin at gawi ukol sa isang
tunguhin, magtatapos din ito sa isang tuldok na
may saysay, ang tuldok ng tagumpay, kung sa
pangkalahatan ay Diyos ang sentro at gabay.”
- Lee Yam

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THANK YOU!

HAPPY LISTENING!!!

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