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# 1.

TENSION TESTING
Also known as tensile test, it is probably

the most fundamental type of mechanical
test you can perform on material.
Tension tests are simple, relatively
inexpensive, and fully standardized.
By pulling on something, you will very
determine how the material will react to
forces being applied in tension. As the
material is being pulled, you will find its
strength along with how much it will
elongate.
2. COMPRESSION TESTING
Test in which material experiences

opposing forces that push inward upon the
specimen from opposite sides or is
otherwise compressed, squashed, crushed,
or flattened.
The test sample is generally placed in
between two plates that distribute the
applied load across the entire surface area
of two opposite faces of the test sample and
then the plates are pushed together by a
universal testing machine causing the
sample to flatten.
-COMPRESSION TESTING RESULTS:

 Compression strength
Yield strength
Ultimate strength
Elastic limit
Elastic modulus
Stiffness
Stress
Strain
PURPOSE OF COMPRESSION TEST:

The goal of a compression test is to
determine the behavior or response of a
material while it experiences a
fundamental variables such as strain,
stress, and deformation.
3. COEFFFICIENT OF THERMAL
EXPANSION

It is the measure of the measure of the
change in length of a material in response
to a change in temperature. Within a small
temperature changes, the change in the
length of a material is proportional to its
change in temperature.
Material expand as temperature increase
and contract when decreasing
temperatures.
4. BEAM DEFLECTIONS
Deflection is the degree to which a
structural element is displaced under a
load. It may refer to an angle or a
distance. The deformation of a beam is
usually expressed in terms of its
The configuration assumed by the
deformed neutral surface is known as
the elastic curve of the beam.
5. SHEAR/TORSION TEST :
Shear Test
 the shear
- Performed to determine
strength of a material. It measures the
maximum shear stress that may be
sustained before a material will rupture.
- Shear forces cause one surface of a
material to move in one direction and the
other surface to move in the opposite
direction so that the material is stressed in
a sliding in a sliding motion.
- Shear testing is commonly used with
adhesives and can be used in either a tensile
or comprehensive method. Applied in bolts,
pins, and rivets.
Torsion Test

- Twist a material or test component to a
specified degree, with a specified force, or
until the material fails in torsion.
- The purpose of a torsion test is to
determine the behavior of a material or test
sample exhibits when twisted or under
torsional forces as a result of applied
moments that cause shear stress about the
axis.