Sei sulla pagina 1di 18

Structural Design

Prelims (30%)
Principles of Design (1st meeting)
Steel Structures
Building Codes and Specifications
Factor for Safety – ASD and LRFD
Steel Properties
Types of Structural Steel Members
Tension Members (2nd meeting)
Structural Bolts (3rd meeting)
Welding (5th – 6th meeting)
Structural Design
Midterm (30%)
Compression Members (7th meeting)
Laterally Supported Beams (8th meeting)
Lateral Torsional Buckling of Beams (9th meeting)
Structural Design
Finals (40%)
Combined Axial and Flexure (11th – 12th meeting)
Connections (13th meeting)
Review (pedestal design + footing design) (14th meeting)

Class Requirement (Lectures / laboratory)


Attendance 10.5%
Seatwork 17.5%
Exams 42.0%
Plates 30.0%
Structural Design

Is an ARTand SCIENCEof selecting, arranging and proportioning


materials and structural analysis to produce a safe, economical
structure.

Science – because of systematic methods


Art – because of practical skills of adesigner
Structural Design

Is an ARTand SCIENCEof selecting, arranging and proportioning


materials and structural analysis to produce a safe, economical
structure.

Science – because of systematic methods


Art – because of practical skills of adesigner
Criteria for an Acceptable Design
Safe
• Should not pose danger to occupants
• Should have sufficient strength
• Non-structural elements must also be anchored properly

Economy
• Should have minimum cost
• Should have minimum weight
• Minimum Labor

Serviceable
• Displacements are within acceptable limits
Design Procedure
• Planning – Set criteria to measure
• Preliminary structural configuration – Arrangement of structural elements
• Establishment of Loads – Define Loads
• Preliminary Member Selection – Member sizes to satisfy objectives
• Analysis – Involves modelling the loads and the structural framework
• Evaluation – Strength and Serviceability requirements are met
• Redesign– Repetition / Iteration
• Final Decision– Determination whether an optimum design has been achieved
Loads
• Dead Load – is a fixed position gravity load
• Live Load – acting when structure is in service but varying in magnitude
and location
• Highway Live Load – Design Truck Loading, Tandem
Loading and Uniform Lane Load

• Impact Load – Dynamic effects of suddenly applied load


• Wind Load
• Earthquake Load – Vertical and Horizontal ground motion
Types of Structural Steel Members
Types of Structural Steel Members
• Tension Members

• Compression Members

• Flexural Members
Design Principles and Philosophies
-Design is a process which an optimum solution is obtained
-A certain criteria must be established for an optimum design
-Design criteria must be of minimum cost, minimum weight,
minimum construction time of maximumefficiency

Limit State
- condition of structure at which it ceases to fulfill its intended function
- 2 types ( strength and serviceability)
Design Principles and Philosophies

Strength Limit State


-Behavioural phenomena achieving ductile maximum
strength, buckling, fatigue and fracture

Serviceability Limit State


-Concerned with deflection, vibration, cracking and
permanent deformation
Design Principles and Philosophies
-Design is a process which an optimum solution is obtained
-A certain criteria must be established for an optimum design
-Design criteria must be of minimum cost, minimum weight,
minimum construction time of maximumefficiency

Most Common
- ASD(Allowable StressDesign)
- LRFD(Load and Resistance Factor Design)
- Others (Plastic Design)
AISC– Allowable Strength Design(ASD)
φRn Rn
= ≥ ΣγiQi
γ Ω
- Left hand side represents the allowable strength
- Right hand side represents the load to becarried
- Note that Ω are based on engineering judgment

Allowable Strength Design (ASD) Load Combinations


Basic Values for Factor of safety in ASD,Ω
For connections, 2.5 to 3
For Columns, 1.67 to 1.92
For beams and Tension Members, 1.67
AISC– Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
- Use of resistance factor , φ

Tension Members
φt = 0.90 for tensile yielding limit state
φt = 0.75 for tensile rupture limit state

Compression Members
φc = 0.90 for tensile yielding limit state
Flexure Members
φb = 0.90 for flexure
φv = 0.90 for shear
Welds
φ = same as for type of actions (tension andshear)
Fasteners in Tension and Shear
φ =0.75
AISC– Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
Load Combinations
1.4D Dead Load during Construction (other loads N/A)
1.2D + 1.6L Live Load
1.2D + (0.8W or 0.5L) Roof Load, or Rain Load (ponding effect)
1.2D + 1.3W + 0.5L Wind Load W additive to Dead Load
1.2D ± 1.0E +0.5L Earthquake Load Eadditive to Dead Load
0.9D ±(1.3W or 1.0E) Wind or Earthquake opposite to DeadLoad
Why LRFDis becoming popular
-The use of multiple load factors generally lead to economy
-Considerable knowledge on resistance of steel structures is
available. On the other hand, variability of loads is muchless.
Thus, separating the two allows us to changed without the
other being affected.
-Economy is likely to happen due to low live load anddead
load ratios
- Safer structures due to better understanding and
awareness of structural behaviour
Plate Requirements

Plate 1: Design Basis

Plate 2: Architectural and Structural Plans (Preliminary)

Plate 3: Slab and Beam Loads

Plate 4: STAAD Model

Plate 5: Simply Supported Beams

Plate 6: Continuous Beams

Plate 7: Combined Axial and Flexure Member

Plate 8: Base Plate Design

Plate 9: Pedestal Design

Plate 10: Foundation Design