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• Presented by :-

TRAINING • [RA1611004020231]

• Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is the world’s
seventh largest telecommunication company.
• BSNL is India's oldest communication service
provider and has a customer base of 93.29 million
as of June 2015.
• BSNL is divided into a number of administrative
units, variously known as: telecom circles, metro
districts, project circles and specialized units. It
has 24 telecom circles, two metro districts, six
project circles, four maintenance regions, five
telecom factories, three training institutions and
four specialized telecom units.
I was a trainee at Gorakhpur SSA BSNL.

The training was for four weeks from 11th June 2018
to 7th July 2018.
OF DAYS I worked with fifteen other trainees.
DONE The course was a vocational training in BASIC

We were taught about telephone

system,satellite telecommunication system,mobile
cellular system

The transmission of information

that allows for communication
between people who are separated
by distance.


information and converts it to

MEDIUM: A trasmission
TELECOMMUNICATION medium is also physical channel
that carries the signal.

RECIEVER: It takes the signal

from channel and converts it
back into usable information.
SENDER: Uses a transmitter which converts the message
into a signal.

TRANSMITTER: Transmits the information through a

medium to the receiver which transmits the signals into
information that can be used and understood by people.

TRANSMISSION MEDIUM: Carries the signal.

RECIEVER: Receives the signal and coverts it back into

usable information.
Telecom network is broadly an integration of:
USER EQUIPMENT: It may an ordinary
telephone, mobile phone, a PC and similar
other devices.
TELECOM ACCESS NETWORK: It provides connectivity
NETWROK AND between user network with switching
ARCHITECTUTRE equipment primarily. It may be copper pairs,
Wireless link and Optical fiber.
SWITCHING NETWROK: It has a role to
interconnect different users. Prominent
switches are CDOT,OCB,AT&T etc.
 Transmission Network: It is the link between
various Networks. It may be optical fiber, wireless
network, satellite etc.
 Application Servers: These servers are connected
to the switching networks through suitable
Transmission links. Servers may contain websites,
movies, game, videos and many others.
 BSNL Landline Network: Between Landline Telephone
and a Landline/Mobile Telephone. Some of the Value
Added Services based on landline Telephone Network are
Broadband Services, Sancharnet Card, Webfone Service,
ISDN services, IN Services, Audio Conferencing, Video
BSNL Conferencing etc.
 BSNL Mobile Network: It is also known as CMTS (Cellular
TELECOM Mobile Telephone Service). BSNL provides mobile
services through GSM (Global System for Mobile
NETWORK Communication) Technology.
 BSNL WLL Network: It stands for Wireless in Local Loop.
BSNL provides WLL services for technically non-feasible
Landline areas and also for rural mobile communications.
WLL works on CDMA Technology.
 BSNL Internet & Broadband: It is a service through which
computer to computer communication is possible worldwide.
 ISDN Services: ISDN is Integrated Services Digital Network. It is an
integration of services like audio, video, images etc. There are two
types of ISDN services—BRA (Basic Rate Access) with 128 kbps
link, and PRA (Primary Rate Access) with 2 Mbps link.
 Data Networks: (a) Leased lines.
(b) Managed Leased Line Network (MLLN).
(c) Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity).
(d) Wi-MAX.
 MPLS VPN: Virtual Private Network (VPN) & Multi Protocol Label
Switching (MPLS). It provides Bandwidth on Demand, Video
Conferencing, Voice over Internet and many other services.
 Intelligent Network: IN provides a framework to create various
services in a centralized place independent of the switch.
Popular IN services are- Free Phone Service, Premium Rate
Service, India Telephone Card, Virtual Private Network, Universal
Access Number, Tele Voting, Account Calling Card etc.
 Satellite Networks: It consists of Communication Satellite, User
Equipment Known as VSAT & Radio Link. BSNL offers Satellite
based Telecom Services supporting- Broadband internet access,
VOIP, Video Conferencing, Local Area Network, Voice, Fax etc. -
 GSM: GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication. It
is a digital cellular mobile communication system. Radio Channels
are accessed using TDMA. Two common Bands of Frequencies are
allocated to GSM-
(i) 900 MHz band-
Mobile -890 to 915 MHz Up-link

Communication- (ii)1800 MHz Band-

-935 to 960 MHz Dn-link

GSM Principle & -1710 to 1785 MHz Up-link

Network -1805 to 1880 MHz Dn-link

Strength of GSM:
Architecture • It provides wide ranges of services
• Open Standard
• User friendly System
• Widely accepted in major parts of the World
 Cellular Systems: In a Cellular System, the Coverage
area of an Operator is divided into a number of sub-
areas called Cells. The shape of a Cell is Hexagonal for
design purposes. The size of a Cell is determined by the
Transmitter’s power. Cellular Systems use low power
 Cluster: The Cells are grouped for the purpose of
frequency allocation. The Groups are termed as
Clusters. Every Cell of a Cluster gets a set of unique
frequencies. The Clusters are repeated to cover more
and more areas with the restriction that no two
adjacent cells belonging to different clusters get the
same set of frequencies.
 Sector: With Omni-directional Antenna, C/I ratio
becomes lower than 18 dB when a Customer goes
closer to the boundary of a Cell. On the other hand, if
each Cell of the 4 Cell Cluster is divided into 3 Sectors
and each Sector is provided with a Directional Antenna,
then C/I come to around 20 dB in the worst case. The
RFs allotted for each Cell is distributed among the
Sectors of the Cell.
The GSM Network may be divided into four main
Architecture of • Mobile Station (MS)
• Base Station Sub-System (BSS)
GSM Network • Network and Switching Sub-system (NSS)
• Operation and Support Sub-System (OSS)
MS has two broad components- SIM & ME.
(i)SIM – SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) is a
smart card. It is used to access subscribed
services. For its unique identification, SIM
MOBILE contains a No. IMSI 20 (International Mobile
Subscriber Identity). SIM also accommodates
STATION MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number).
(ii)ME- ME (Mobile Equipment) is the part of MS
minus SIM. It has a Unique Identification No. IMEI
(International Mobile Equipment Identity).
BSS can be divided into two units- BTS (Base
Trans-receiver Station) & BSC (Base Station
 BTS: BTS provides wireless resources to MSs.
Base Station BTS is usually placed in the Centre of a Cell.
BTS contains one or more TRXs (Transceiver or
Sub-System Radio Units) to provide full duplex
communication to MSs.
(BSS)  BSC: Each BSC controls a group of BTSs. BSC is
the Radio Resource Manager. -BSC is primarily
responsible for- -Handovers within its area of
coverage -Frequency Hopping -Exchange
Functions -Radio Resource Power level control
NSS consists of-
 MSC (Mobile Switching Centre): MSC performs
Switching and signaling functions. It interacts with
PSTNs, other MSCs, HLR, VLR etc. Handling location
registration through VLR. It controls inter-BSC and
Intra-MSC handovers. It performs standard functions of
a Digital Switch.
Network &  HLR (Home Location Register): HLR contains most
Switching Sub- important Database of its MSs. It also stores current
sub location & service entitlements.HLR contains IMSI,
System (NSS) MSISDN Numbers of Subscribers. Subscription
information of various services.
 VLR (Visitor Location Register): VLR contains Sub
parameters and Location information of Mobile Subs
currently lying in its coverage area. When a new sub
enters the coverage area of a VLR, it collects relevant
information of the sub.VLR contains IMSI, TMSI,
OSS is connected with NSS and BSS to control and
monitor the GSM System. OSS also controls the
Operation & traffic load of BSS. OSS has only one sub-unit
called OMC (Operation and Maintenance Centre).
Support Sub- OMC may have further segregation as-
System • OMC-S for NSS part activity
• OMC-R for BSS (RSS) part activity