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ERT 322


I suppose that I
should have done that
HAZOP Study!

A scenario…

You and your family are on a road trip by

using a car in the middle of the night. You
were replying a text message while driving at
100 km/h and it was raining heavily. The car
hits a deep hole and one of your tire blows.

You hit the brake, but due to slippery road and

your car tire thread was thin, the car skidded
and was thrown off the road.

Points to ponder

What was the cause of the accident?

What was the consequence of the event?

What can we do to prevent all those things to happen in the

first place?

What other possible accidents might happen on the road


Can we be prepared before the accident occurs?

Can we make it more systematic?
Parameter Guideword Possible Consequences Action Safeguard
Car speed Too fast Rushing Skidded when - Slow down -ABS brake
Too slow emergency - Speed up system
brake -Safety belt
- Air bag
Tire No thread Tire too old, Car skidded - Check
Less thread often frequently
speeding and - Have spare tire
Window Low Rain Cannot see the
visibility Very low road

Car light Dim -Stop car

No light -Go to nearest
-Use emergency
Road With holes Breaks the car - Put a signboard
Rocky tire -Street lights
Travel time Night No street light -Travel during
Foggy daylight

• Anything that can go wrong,

will go wrong

• To discuss hazard identification methods

• To evaluate hazard and operability studies methods
• To synthesis HAZOP session
What is hazard?
Table 1
Examples of Hazards and Their Effects

Workplace Hazard Example of Hazard Example of Harm


Thing Knife Cut

Substance Benzene Leukemia
Material Asbestos Mesothelioma
Source of Energy Electricity Shock, electrocution

Condition Wet floor Slips, falls

Process Welding Metal fume fever
Practice Hard rock mining Silicosis
• How to reduce the possibility of hazard?
1. Remove hazard (use public transport)

2. Reduce the frequency (follow rules, car in good conditions,

physically alert, route selection)

3. Consequence – prepare for hazard (airbag, seat belt)

Hazard Identification (HAZID)
• Can be performed during initial design or ongoing operation of the
• Hazard identification (HAZID) methods:
1. Process hazard checklist
2. Hazard surveys
3. Hazard and operability (HAZOP) studies
4. Safety review
Process Hazard Checklists
• List of possible problems and areas to be checked.
• Checklist should be applied only during the preliminary stages of
• Refer to Figure 10-2.
Hazards Surveys
• 2 most popular forms of hazard survey:
1. Dow Fire and Explosion Index (F&EI)
2. Dow Chemical Exposure Index (CEI)
- Using a rating form
- Final rating number provides relative ranking of the hazard

• Refer to Figure 10-3 and 10-4.

Example 10-1
Your plant is considering the installation of a new railcar tank
unloading facility. The facility will unload nominal 25,000-gal
tank cars containing either pure butadiene or cyclohexane. The
unloading system will be equipped with an emergency shutdown
system with remotely operated block valves. The unloading
operation will be done by computer control. The railcars are
inerted with nitrogen to a pressure of 40 psig, and the railcar
relief system has a set pressure of 75 psig. The unloading
operating instructions are written and have been reviewed by the
corporate technical staff. A reactive chemicals review has
already been completed on the proposed facility. Combustible
gas detectors will be located at the unloading station. A deluge
system will be installed at the unloading site with an excellent
water supply. A diking system will surround three sides of the
facility, with any spills directed to a covered impounding area.
Determine the Dow F&EI for this operation, and determine the
minimum spacing from adjacent units.
• F&EI value = 106
• Refer to Table 10.2, which means this unloading station
is an intermediate hazard.
• By refering to Dow index booklet, for this case, the
radius is 90ft
• Thus, the unloading station must be located a minimum
of 90ft from any other equipment or process.
Hazard Identification (HAZID)
• Can be performed during initial design or ongoing operation of the
• Hazard identification (HAZID) methods:
1. Process hazard checklist
2. Hazard surveys
3. Hazard and operability (HAZOP) studies
4. Safety review
Hazard & Operability Studies (HAZOP)
The HAZOP procedure:

1. Begin with a detailed flow sheet. Break the flow sheet into a
number of process units. Thus the reactor area might be one unit,
and the storage tank another. Select a unit for study.

2. Choose a study node (vessel, line, operating instruction).

3. Describe the design intent of the study node. For example, vessel
V-1 is designed to store the benzene feedstock and provide it on
demand to the reactor.

4. Pick a process parameter: flow, level, temperature, pressure,

concentration, pH, viscosity, state (solid, liquid, or gas), agitation,
volume, reaction, sample, component, start, stop, stability, power,
5. Apply a guide word to the process parameter to suggest
possible deviations. (Table 10-3)

6. If the deviation is applicable, determine possible causes and

note any protective systems.

7. Evaluate the consequences of the deviation (if any).

8. Recommend action (what? by whom? by when?)

9. Record all information.

Simple Example of a HAZOP Study
Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) Production

• Phosphoric acid and ammonia are mixed, and a non-

hazardous product, diammonium phosphate (DAP),
results if the reaction of ammonia is complete. If too
little phosphoric acid is added, the reaction is
incomplete, and ammonia is produced. Too little
ammonia available to the reactor results in a safe but
undesirable product.
•Both chemicals will be used in large quantities
and in concentrated form. Due to the highly
corrosive nature of both chemicals, the project
team was assigned to investigate the hazards
posed to staff from the reaction resulting from
study line 1 (phosphoric acid delivery line).
Production of DAP (continuous process)

Valve A

Phosphoric Acid

Study line 1
Phosphoric acid delivery line

Valve C
Valve B



HAZOP Study Report on line 1 of DAP

Example 10-2

Consider the reactor system shown in Figure 10-8. The

reaction is exothermic, so a cooling system is provided
to remove the excess energy of reaction. In the event that
the cooling function is lost, the temperature of the
reactor would increase. This would lead to an increase in
reaction rate, leading to additional energy release. The
result would be a runaway reaction with pressures
exceeding the bursting pressure of the reactor vessel. The
temperature within the reactor is measured and is used to
control the cooling water flowrate by a valve.

Perform a HAZOP study on this unit to improve the

safety of the process. Use as study nodes the cooling coil
(process parameters: flow and temperature) and the
stirrer (process parameter: agitation).

• Provides more complete identification of the hazards – including

information on how hazards can develop as a result of operating
procedures and operational upsets.

• Companies that perform detailed HAZOP studies find that:

i. Process operate better and have less down time
ii. Product quality is improved
iii. Less waste is produced
iv. Employees are more confident in the safety process

• 2 types of safety review: the formal and the informal

• The informal safety review is used for small changes to existing
• The formal safety review is used for new processes, substantial
changes in existing process and process that need an updated
• The formal report includes the following sections:
1. Introduction
2. Raw material & products
3. Equipment setup
5. Safety checklist
6. MSDS (Material safety data sheets)
MINI PROJECT 1 - Grouping : Same as IP groups
Due date: 19 May 2017 (5pm)
Q1 The hydrolysis of acetic anhydride is being studied in a
laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). In
this reaction acetic anhydride [(CH3CO)2O reacts with water
to produce acetic acid (CH3COOH).

The concentration of acetic anhydride at any time in the

CSTR is determined by titration with sodium hydroxide.
Because the titration procedure requires time (relative to the
hydrolysis reaction time), it is necessary to quench the
hydrolysis reaction as soon as the sample is taken. The
quenching is achieved by adding an excess of aniline to the
sample. The quench reaction is
The quenching reaction also forms acetic acid, but in a different
stoichiometric ratio than the hydrolysis reaction. Thus it is
possible to determine the acetic anhydride concentration at the
time the sample was taken.

The initial experimental design is shown in Figure 10-14. Water

and acetic anhydride are gravity-fed from reservoirs and through
a set of rotameters. The water is mixed with the acetic anhydride
just before it enters the reactor. Water is also circulated by a
centrifugal pump from the temperature bath through coils in the
reactor vessel. This maintains the reactor temperature at a fixed
value. A temperature controller in the water bath maintains the
temperature to within 1°F of the desired temperature.

a. Develop a safety checklist for use before operation of this

b. Perform a HAZOP study on the intention “reactant flow to
reactor” for your analysis. What specific recommendations
can you make to improve the safety of this experiment?
Q2 A heat exchanger is used to heat flammable and volatile
solvents, as shown in Figure Q2. The temperature of the outlet
stream is measured by a thermocouple, and a controller valve
manipulates the amount of steam to the heat exchanger to
achieve the desired set point temperature.

Perform a Hazard and Operabilility Studies (HAZOP) on the

intention “hot solvent from heat exchanger” (process
parameter: flow) in a table format. You must determine the
possible causes, evaluate the possible consequences and
recommend the action required. Use at least THREE (3)
guide words to the process parameter
Figure Q2