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RIZAL & THE THEORY OF NATIONALISM

CHAPTER 3

REFERENCE:MAGHUYOP, ET.AL.(2018).The Life and Works of Jose Rizal.Mutya Publishing House,Inc.


DESIRED LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
• Differentiate “nation” from the concept of nationalism
• Discuss Rizal’s foundation of nationalism as traced by his
cultural roots; and
• Explain in how Rizal’s work relates to Philippine
nationalism
INTRODUCTION

• Acquiring a better understanding of Rizal’s life demands a


deeper and more profound analysis of his life and writings.
• His firm beliefs were the results of what he had seen and
experienced during his European days
• Thus, to clear up vague thoughts bout him requires a glimpse
into his past.
INTRODUCTION

• Rizal was one of the elites who demands changes in the


Philippine government during the Spanish colonization.
• Together with his other ilustrado friends, Rizal voiced the
inclusion of Filipinos as representatives in the Cortes.
• Filipinization in churches and equal rights were among the
requests made by Rizal to the Spanish government
• Rizal fought for equality with the Spaniards
INTRODUCTION

• Rizal and his fellow ilustrados wanted to acquire the same


education and wealth as the Spanish students and families in
the Philippines have
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• Jose Rizal came from a family belonging to the middle class


• His father owned lands
• The family lived a good life compared with the common
Filipinos during those times
• Well provided and was sustained in his studies
• They belonged to the wealthy few, the ilustrados
• The fortune of his family was well used
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• Rizal was sent to schools run by Dominican and Jesuits


• He was able to acquire his education from Spanish school,
allowing him to nurture his skills and talents
• He excelled in almost all aspects of his studies
• He was good in language, spelling, and science, and he was
able to master numerous foreign languages
• His skills grew as he increased his acquisition of various
courses
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• He was good in Spanish, making it advantageous for him to


interact in a class dominated by Spaniards
• Education led Rizal to a deeper understanding of equality and
order in society.
• Rizal’s urge to learn also increased his desires for reforms.
• Education opened his eyes to biases in the Philippines and the
abuses of the Spaniards against the Filipinos
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• The unheard cries of the natives and the increasing fame of


Rizal fueled revolts in the country
• The natives organized groups and continued to engage in
bloody battles to acquire reforms and democracy
• Rizal’s writings made a huge impact on the minds of the
native who wished to break free from the abuses of the
Spaniards.
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• When Rizal was imprisoned, numerous plans to break him out


of jail were initiated by the revolting group
• But none of them prospered as Rizal preferred to engage in a
bloodless battle for independence
• The dilemma that Rizal faced was depicted in his two famous
novels, the Noli and El Fili
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• In Noli Me Tangere, Rizal was represented by both Elias and


Ibarra
• In the chapter, “Voice of the Hunted,” Elias believed in the
need for radical reforms in the armed forces, priesthood, and
administrative justice system
• While, Ibarra did not agree with the reforms Elias wanted and
believed in the power of the authorities and the need for
necessary evil
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• In the chapter, “Elias’ Story,” Elias saw the need for an armed
struggle and resistance against the opposing forces while
Ibarra disagreed and believed that education was the key to
make the people liberated, so he encourages the building of
schoolhouses to educate those who are worthy of it.
• In the chapter “Chase on the Lake,” Elias suddenly had a
change of heart; he believed in reforms while Ibarra became a
filibuster, initiating revolution
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• This change of hear in Ibarra was a product of hardships and the


desire to attain personal vengeance
• This trend of vagueness continued in the novel El Fili, were Rizal
was reflected in the characters of Simoun, Basilio, and Padre
Florentino
• In the chapter “Simoun,” he was Ibarra in disguise, again being
adamant for a revolution, and Basilio was being like Ibarra initially
in the Noli when he proclaimed his belief in education as a tool for
equality and freedom
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• In the conclusion of the Fili, Rizal has implied his resolution


when in the story, he killed Simoun, the promoter of
revolution, and made Padre Florentino, an advocate of peace,
prevail
• In real life, Rizal reiterated his stand regarding this issue in his
December 15 Manifesto when he declared that he was
against the revolution, and he favored the reform programs,
especially regarding education.
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM
• Rizal was Realist as he understood why there was a need for
revolution
• Yet he was more of Idealist because:
– He wanted to have freedom through peaceful means
– He did not want to see the ugly face of society
– He expressed his gratitude to Spain since he did not want to fight against it
– Spain was like a mother country for him, he did not want to stab his own
mother
• So in the process of making circumstances favorable for both, his
appeal was for reforms and education
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM
• However, his plea for education and some other reforms was
impossible during those times, and those were not what the
people then currently needed.
• What would liberate the people was the massive movement
of the natives united against the oppressors.
RIZAL’S WORK AND PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM
• When Rizal died, the natives were able to push through their
freedom with their strong nationalism that had been heated up and
strengthened by his artistic and realistic viewpoints in his writings
• He had influenced numerous natives to fight for independence
• The result of independence was very sweet for the Filipinos who
fought and died for it, and it was a regret feel that Rizal was not
able to see that the revolution that he did not favor was what
liberated his people
PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

• Nationalism usually springs from the consciousness of a


national identity of being one people. It is that all pervading
spirit that binds together men of diverse castes and creeds,
clans and colors, and unites them into one people, one
family, one nation with common aspirations and ideals
(Anderson, 1983)
PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM
• Things built up nationalism in the Filipinos:
– The abuse of the Spanish people
– Opening international trade
– Influence of liberal thoughts in the Philippines
– Revolution in Cavite
– Death of GOMBURZA
– Rise of the Middle Class
– Secularization Movement
– Most of all the Death of Jose Rizal
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• The Philippine experience in the formation of consciousness
of a national identity had its roots in the pre-Hispanic period
and developed through 2 difficult but significant periods of
Western colonization, culminating in the eventual
inauguration of the Philippine Republic in 1946
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• According the archeologist and historians, the origin of our
culture was hypothesized based on the following:
a) Our indigenous culture began to develop in the prehistoric and pre-
Christian eras
b) These early cultures range from the crude Old Stone age to the Metal
Age with organized community life
c) The early settlers came from Borneo, Indo-China, South China and
other parts of Southeast Asia.
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• It is believed that 2,500 years ago, the Negritos arrived in the
Philippines and were considered the first people who arrived
here
• The early occupants of the Philippines islands were believed
to have reached the areas through a land bridge connecting
Malaysia and China
• Studies show that the Malays, one of the early settlers in the
country, migrated around 300 to 200 B.C.
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• They brought with them their skills in mining and smelting
agriculture; cultivated fruit trees, spices, fiber, ornamental
plants, and some other agricultural products; used of
carabaos and horses as working animals; and used technology
in the manufacture of ornamented pottery and glass beads
and in the art of weaving
• They started the development of our indigenous culture
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• The second wave of Malay immigrants brought with them the
system of writing called the syllabaries system
• They arrived around 13th century, the beginning of the
Christian era
• In the latter half of the 14th and through the 15th century, the
Muslim Malays, the last group of Malays to migrate to the
Philippines came, and it marked the foundation and
development of Islam in Mindanao and Sulu
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• As time passed by, numerous bloodlines coming from Asian migrants
assimilated so well to produce the Filipino people and our indigenous
culture
• Until the Spaniards came, the settlers in the Philippines has established a
certain culture and agricultural technology of their own
• They had their own traditions, developed religious and social norms of
their own
• The settlers already had a shared language, system of writing, literature,
and political and judicial systems based on the accepted standards of the
period
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• Despite of countless similarities of the early Filipino tribes and
inhabitants, unity was hard to attain in the country as a whole
• Regardless of the shared territory, racial characteristics and
beliefs, the Filipinos remained disunited and were broken into
different political factions during the precolonial era
• Their lack of unity and identity made it easier for the
colonizers to conquer the Philippines.
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• The country was divided into small independent political
groups called barangay, which were constantly fighting for
survival
• However, it is firmly established that these groups of people
molded our identity as a people and gave us a heritage that
Western colonization could not uproot in four centuries
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• The People. Filipinos, belong to a mixture of races. Centuries
of contact with the Western and Asian countries through of
trade and colonization made the Filipino race very complex. A
Filipino is a combination of the East and West, so the
character exhibits curious contradictions that foreigners find
hard to understand
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• Common Traits. It is difficult, if not impossible, to define what
a Filipino is. Common Traits of Filipinos are difficult to depict
the existence of numerous races, practices, and beliefs have
been developed and preserved with the passing of time. All
that can be done is to pick out some traits common to the
average Filipinos and to separate those that are obviously
Spanish or American
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• Hospitality. It is part of the Filipino culture, and it is naturally
felt and seen in every household whenever visitors come or
even strangers pass by. Even a poor Filipino would offer what
he has, such as food, shelter, and accommodation to the
extent that the owner would sleep on the floor just to make
the visitor or stranger feel at home.
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• Close Family Ties. Family, the most basic unit of society where
interaction starts and simple negotiations among its members
are held, my consist of grandparents, parents, and siblings.
Filipinos are family-centered; they have always viewed blood
to be thicker than water. The family comes first, creating a
close relationship among the members.
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• Respect For Elders. Parents always remind their children and
say, “Respect your elders.” It is very offending not to hear the
words “po” and “opo” when the young address older persons.
Filipinos consider this practice as a sign of good parenting.
• Fatalistic. Fatalism in Filipino is best symbolized in the phrase
“Bahala na.” It is a phrase that defies translation but which
may be rendered loosely as “Come What May.” Filipino
fatalistic nature is caused by their reliance on fate
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• Loyalty. This refers to the faithfulness and trustworthiness to
a close companion or friend. Loyalty is best portrayed through
helping one another not only the benefactor but also his
family. For Filipinos, friendship is sanctified, and a small help
and favor will always be remembered until the receiver’s last
draw of life
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• Jealousy. A man, strongly dislikes a woman who flirts with
several men. For him what is “his is his” and is “yours is
yours.” What is meant for him is only for him and even his
closest friend cannot kiss his wife even as brotherly kiss. In
short Filipinos are territorial
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
• Sense of “Pakikisama”. Filipinos are able to fit with other
people and set aside their selfish wants. They have an inherit
sense of camaraderie, setting aside individuality and
welcoming collaboration. It is a trait of honest acceptance of
the differences among people, creating an environment
suitable for everyone.
RIZAL’S NATIONALISM AS TRACED BY ITS
CULTURAL ROOTS
Phelan (1957) attributes the survival of our indigenous culture thus:
This indigenous culture was practiced on the islands. Under Spain’s
jurisdiction, there was a blending of significant elements in the old
culture coming up with a new society. For the Filipinos, their identity
remained while absorbing the cultural influences of the Spaniards.
Whatever damage they experienced, either psychologically or
materially, they survived. Phelan analyzed the factors that sustained
the native culture in its survival and he considered the inward
cohesiveness of native Philippine society as the most important
SALAMAT PO!!!