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# Structural Engineering &Construction

STEEL DESIGN
(Lecture 1)

1. Riveted Connections
2. Welded Connections
1. BOLTED-RIVETED TENSION CONNECTIONS
PROBLEM 1. The tension member is composed of a 200x150x10mm thick
Angle connected using 20mmØ rivets as shown. Fy = 250 Mpa,
Determine the following :
1. The net area of the section.
2. The max. net area required by the Code.
3. The safe tensile capacity of the member.

GAGE CONVERSION :
Convert the angle to an Equivalent Flat Member : g’ = g1 + g2 - t
GROSS WIDTH CONVERSION :
bgross = L1 + L2 - t
10

50
200
40
bgross = 200+150-10 = 340
45
g’ = 45+60-10 = 95

30 40 60
150
SOLUTION :
A
50 B

40 C
bgross = 340

g’ = 95
D
E

## Hole diameter = 20+3 = 23 mm

30 40
1. Chain AD : bnet = 340 – 2x23 = 294 mm
Chain ABD : 302 + ------------
bnet = 340 – 3x23 + -------- 302 = 277.17 mm
4x50 4(95+40)
302 402 702
Chain ABCD : bnet = 340 – 4x23 + -------- + ------- + -------- = 275.39 mm
4x50 4x40 4x95
302 402
Chain ABCE : bnet = 340 – 3x23 + -------- + ------- = 285.5 mm
4x50 4x40
USE : b = smallest = 275.39 mm

PROBLEM 2.

## A plate with a width of 400 mm and

thickness of 12 mm is to be connected
to a plate of the same width and
thickness by 34-mm diameter bolts as
shown. The holes are 2mm larger than
the bolt diameter. The plate is A36
steel with yield strength Fy = 248 MPa.
Allowable tensile stress is 0.60 Fy. It is
required to determine the value of b so
that the net width along bolts 1-2-3-4 is
equal to the net width along bolts 1-2-4.

## 1. Determine the value of b.

2. What is the net area for tension.
3. Calculate the value of P so that the allowable tensile stress
on net area will not be exceeded.
PROBLEM 2. Solution
A NET = bNET x t = 301.97 x 12 = 3624 mm2

HOLE DIA. = 34 + 2
= 36 mm 3.

## S2 P = ANET x 0.6 Fy = 3624 x 0.6 x 248 x 10-3

bnet = bgross – Σ holeØ + Σ------
4g
P = 539.2 KN

SOLUTION :

2 b 2 150 2 b 2
1. 60
Chain 1-2-3-4 : bnet = 400 – 4x36 + -------- + -------- + -------- = ----- + 321.25
4x100 4x100 4x100 400
60 2 (150 - b) 2 (150-b)2 + 301
Chain 1-2--4 : bnet = 400 – 3x36 + -------- + ------------- = ------------
4x100 4x200 4x200
2 (150-b) 2
b
----- + 321.25 = ------------ + 301 : b2 + 300 b – 6300 = 0 : b = 19.7 mm
400 4x200

## 2. 19.72 + 321.25 = 322.22 mm

Chain 1-2-3-4 = Chain 1-2-4 : bnet = -------- USE
400
Chain 1-2--3 : bnet = 400 – 3x36 + -------- 19.72
602 + -------- = 301.97 mm
4x100 4x100
PROBLEM 3.
4. Rivet bearing failure on critical plate: T =1.AbThe critical
Fb = d x t xplate
Fb for tension.
Two plates 14mmx150mm and 10mmx200mm 2. The maximum load carried by the
are lapped
T = 4together using
rivets ( 25 x 1025mmØ - 3 =as 120 KN connection
rivets
)( 120 )x10 Ans. considering tension
shown. The allowable stresses are : failure of the plate.
Tension = 100 Mpa, Shear = 70 Mpa, 3. The maximum load carried by the
Bearing = 120 Mpa. connection considering shear failure
5. Safe
Determine tensile capacity
the following : : Use smallest result from tension, shear, & bearing :
on the rivet.
10 x 200 4. The maximum load carried by the
Safe T
14 x 150= 120 KN Ans.
connection considering bearing
T T failure on Tthe rivet.
6. Joint efficiency : Critical plate tensile capacity: Plate = Ag Ft
5. The safe tensile
TPlate = capacity.
2000 x 100 x 10-3
Efficiency = (Safe T / TPlate)x 100% = 60% Ans. 6. The efficiency of the joint.
TPlate = 200 KN
C B A

1. 14mm plate : Ag = 14x150 = 2100 mm2 Critical plate = Plate of least area
= 10mm plate Ans.
10mm plate : Ag = 10x200 = 2000 mm2

## 2. Critical plate tension failure : Hole dia. = 25+3 = 28 mm Use : T = smallest

= 172 KN
Tearing at A : T = 100(10)(200 – 1x28) x10-3 = 172 KN
Tearing at B : T = 100(10)(200 – 2x28) x10-3 + T / 4 : T = 192 KN Ans.
Tearing at C : T = 100(10)(200 – 1x28) x10-3 + 3(T / 4) : T = 688 KN

## 3. Rivet single shear failure : T = Av Fv

T = 4 rivets (π/4)(25 2)(70)x10 -3 = 137.44 KN Ans.
BOLTED / RIVETED BRACKET CONNECTIONS
Method of Analysis :
1. By Traditional elastic (vector) analysis .
Eccentric load P causes rotation effect
about the centroid of the fastener group
only.
2. By ultimate strength (or plastic) analysis .
CONCEPT :
Eccentric load P causes rotation as well
cg
as translation effect on the fastener
group where this effect CAN BE
REDUCED TO A PURE ROTATION
EFFECT about a point called the
INSTANTANEOUS CENTER OF
ROTATION. IC
The Instantaneous Center Concept is
identical with the Elastic Vector Analysis
if :

## 1. The deformation of each fastener is proportional to its

distance from the Instantaneous Center.
2. The resistance is proportional to the deformation.
PROBLEM 3. P = 40 KN

## The bracket connection shown can be analyzed by 3

composed of a vertical force alone acting thru the
centroid of the rivets and a moment.
70mm
1. Find the maximum rivet load due to
80mm
a) 4.3 kN c) 6.2 kN 80mm
b) 5.0 kN d) 7.3 kN
80mm
2. Find the maximum rivet load due to
effect of equivalent moment alone.
a) 12.7 kN c) 14.5 kN
60 60
b) 13.8 kN d) 15.3 kN
3. Find the minimum size of rivet that
can be used if allowable shear stress
is 100 MPa. 200mm
a) 15 mm c) 17 mm
b) 16 mm d) 18 mm 5. Find the total resistance &
4. Find the minimum thickness of plate shearing stress on the critical
that can be used if allowable bearing rivet if the Instantaneous Center
stress is 225 MPa. is located 100mm left and 30mm
a) 4.5 mm c) 6.0 mm down the centroid of the rivet
b) 5.0 mm d) 7.5 mm group.
y ex = 200
SOLUTION to PROB. 3. PH= 40(3/5)=24 KN PV = 40(4/5)=32KN
PV = 32
CRITICAL RIVET :
1. NOTE : Centroid located at center of group. Farthest rivet with
ex = 200 mm P = 40 KN
ey = 40 + 80 + 70 = 190 mm 70 PDX PTX PDX PTX
3 PV
DIRECT LOAD : PD = P / n = 40 / 8 = 5 KN PDY
4 ey
PDY
(Ans.) 120 PTY
2. PH PV = 32 PTY
TORSIONAL MOMENT :
R
M 70mm
= PV ex+ PH ey = 32 x 0.2 + 24 x 0.19 = 10.96 KNm
40
80mm INERTIA : J = Σ ( X2+Y2 ) x
TORSIONAL
40 PH = 24 M
J = ( 8 x 602 ) + ( 4 x 402 + 4 x 1202 ) = 92800 mm2
80mm 120
TORSIONAL SHEAR COMPONENTS :
NOTE80mm
: Most stressed rivet : x = 60 , y = 120 PDX PTX PDX PTX
PTX = M Y / J = 10.96x10 3 (120) / 92800 = 14.172 KN
PTy = M X / J = 10.96x10 3 ( 60 ) / 92800 = 7.086 KN PDY PDY
60 60
TOTAL TORSION :
60 60 (Ans.)
PTY PTY

PT =√ PTX 2 + PTY2 =√14.172 2 + 7.0862 15.84 KN FROM RIVET SHEAR STRESS : Single Shear
=
PLOT
PLOT
TORSIONAL
DIRECT SHEAR
SHEAR
(π/4) d2 = 20440
Av = R / Fv : / 100
3. DIRECT SHEAR COMPONENTS :
200mm COMPONENTS
d = 16.13TO
mmCORNER
SAY 17mm
PDY = Pv / n = 32 / 8 = 4 KN
RIVETS
RIVETSONLY ONLY. (Ans.)
PDX = PH / n = 24 / 8 = 3 KN 4. FROM RIVET BEARING :
COMBINED SHEAR & TORSION ( critical rivet ) :
Ab = R / Fb : (17 x t ) = 20440 / 225 (Ans.)
R =√ (PDX + PTX)2 + (PDY + PTY )2 20.44 KN t = 5.34 mm SAY 6 mm
Note: Instantaneous Center = 100 mm left of centroid 5. Elastic (Vector) Analysis
ex = 200+100 = 300
30 mm below centroid Load at Instantaneous Center.
P = 40 KN PV = 32 P = same = 3.0 KN
Dx Note: Critical rivet :
3
PDy = same = 4.0 KN x = 160 , y = 150
Critical rivet
4 P = 40 KN
PH = 24 M = PV x 0.30 + PH x 0.22 = 14.88 3 KNm
70 PDx PTx 4
J = Σ(X2+Y2) = 4x402 + 4x1602 + 2x150 2

## + 2x702 + 2x102 + 2x902

PDy 70mm = 157500 mm2
80
ey =220 150 PTy
PV = 32 P80mm 3
TX = M Y / J = 14.88x10 (150) / 157500
R
= 14.17 KN
M 40 cg 80mm
70 PTy = M X / J = 14.88x103 (160) / 157500
30 80mm = 15.12 KN
PH = 24 10 ic

90 80
R =√ (PDX + PTX60
)2 +60
(PDY + PTY )2

R = 25.7 kN Ans.
60 60
200mm
40
fv = R / Av fv = 25700 / (π/4) 202
100
fv = 81.8 Mpa Ans.
160
WELDED CONNECTIONS
WELDING PROCESSES :

## 1. SMAW Process - Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process Common Used

2. SAW Process - Submerged Arc Welding Process
3. GMAW Process - Gas Metal Arc Welding Process
4. FCAW Process - Flux - Cored Arc Welding Process
5. ESW Process - Electro - Slag Welding Process

## TYPES OF WELDS : EFFECTIVE AREA OF FILLET WELD :

te = effective throat
FILLET WELD
L = length of weld
a including end
PLUG WELD returns
te
SLOT WELD a = leg size
Aweld = te (L)
root
GROOVE WELD
For SMAW Process : te = 0.707 a

## For SAW Process :

If a ≤ 9.5 mm, use te = a.
a b
If a > 9.5 mm, use te = 0.707a + 2.8mm
PROBLEM 4. WELDING UNDER DIRECT SHEAR
A 200mm x 100mm thick steel plate is welded using 8mm fillet
weld as shown in the figure. If Fu = 483 Mpa, det. the following :
1. The shear capacity of the fillet weld
150 using Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(SMAW) process.
200 2. The shear capacity per unit length
T = te(L)0.3Fu of the fillet weld using SMAW process
150
3. The shear capacity of the fillet weld
using Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
For SMAW Process : te = 0.707 a process.

## 3. For SAW Process : If a ≤ 9.5 mm, use te = a.

If a > 9.5 mm, use te = 0.707a + 2.8 mm

## T = te (L) 0.3Fu = 8 (150+200+150) (0.3 x 483) x 10-3 = 580.56 KN

PROBLEM 5. WELDING UNDER DIRECT SHEAR
A 100mmx100mmx10mm thick angle is to be welded to a gusset plate as shown in the
figure. The angle has a cross-sectional area of 1900mm2 with neutral axis located
28.7mm from the corner edge of the angle. If Fu = 483 Mpa, determine the following :

## L2 1. The capacity of the welded connection

T2
Toe if Fy = 250 Mpa.
50 2. The maximum size of the fillet weld to be
T3 T 100
L3 = 100 used.
50
28.7 3. The total length of the fillet weld required.
T1 Heel 4. The length of the maximum size of the
L1
fillet weld at the toe of the angle.
5. L1 = L – L2 – L3 = 182.96 mm 5. The length of the maximum size of the
fillet weld at the heel of the angle.

## 2. Check : t = 10 mm > 6mm : Use amax = t – 1.5 = 10 – 1.5 = 8.5 mm

3. T = 0.707 amax (L) 0.3Fu : 285x103 = 0.707 x 8.5 ( L )(0.3 x 483) : L = 326.75 mm

## 4. T3 = 0.707amax(L3)0.3Fu = L3 T / L T3 = 100 x 285 / 326.75 = 87.22 KN

T1 = 0.707amax(L1)0.3Fu = L1 T / L T2 = L2 x 285 / 326.75 = 87.22 L2 KN

## Σ MT1 = 0 T2 (100) + T3 (50) = T (28.7)

87.22 L2 (100) + 87.22 (50) = 285(28.7) L2 = 43.73 mm
PROBLEM 6. WELDING UNDER COMBINED SHEAR and TORSION

## A bracket plate is welded to a frame and subjected to a vertical load of 40 KN as shown

in the given figure. Determine the following :

## 1. The centroidal torsional couple acting on

100mm the bracket.
2. The force carried by the weld due to
PV = 40 KN 3. The force carried by the weld due to
P
torsion alone.
4. The maximum force per mm of the fillet
100mm weld due to combined effects of direct
PH = 0 5. The appropriate size of the fillet weld if
Fu = 483.8 Mpa

100mm

150mm
SOLUTION to PROB. 6. PV = 40 KN PH = 0 CRITICAL CORNER y ex
100mm
1. CENTROID : LT = 100+150 = 250 mm
– – 100mm – 100 PV = 40 KN
LT x = Σ(LX) : (250) x = 100(50 ) + 150(75) : x = 65mm
– – – 50
LT y = Σ(Ly) : (250) y = 100(100) + 150(0) : y = 40mm 15
ex = 100 + 65 = 165 mm PDX PTX PDX PTX
PV =mm
ey = 100 - P40 = 60
40 KN
TORSIONAL MOMENT : PDY PDY

## M = PV ex+ PH ey = 40(0.165) + 0(.06) = 6.6 KNm (Ans.) ey = 60 PTY PV = 40 PTY

100mm 100
x
PDY = Pv / LT = 40X103 / (100+150) = 160
P N/mm
=0 PH = 0 M _
H Y = 40
PDX = PH / LT = 0
(Ans.) PDX PTX PDX PTX
PD =√ PDX 2 + PDY2 =√ 160 2 + 0 2 = 160 N/mm
100mm PDY 10 _ PDY
X = 65
3. PTY
TORSION : 75
PTY
L 2
TORSIONAL INERTIA : J = Σ(L)( --- + X2+Y2) 150
12
1002 1502
J = 100( ------ + 15 + 60 ) + 150(------ + 102 + 402
2 2
5.
12 12 R = (0.707 a )(L)( 0.30Fu)
J = 1.002X10 mm6 150mm
3
708.6 = 0.707 a (1mm)(0.3x483.8) : a = 6.91mm
TORSIONAL SHEAR : Most stressed weld corner . SAY 7mm
PTX = M Y / J = 6.6x10 6 (60) 6
/ 1.002x10 = 395.21 N/mm
( x = 65, y = 60 ) (Ans.)
PTy = M X / J = 6.6x10 6 (65) / 1.002x10 6 = 428.14 N/mm
TOTAL TORSION : PT =√ PTX 2 + PTY2 =√ 395.21 2 + 428.142 = 582.66 N/mm (Ans.)

4. COMBINED SHEAR & TORSION : R =√ (PDX + PTX)2 + (PDY + PTY )2 708.6 N/mm (Ans.)
=
PROBLEM 7. WELDING UNDER COMBINED SHEAR and BENDING
column P = 50 KN Assuming
1. The shear thestress
columnon and bracket
the weld for does
a 1mmnot control
width of and
using
2.
SMAWthroat.
effective
following
The maximum
field welding process, determine the
if the allowable
force pershear
mm of stress on the fillet weld is
the weld.
150 145 Mpa
3. The :
required leg size of the fillet weld to be used.
1.3. TheRshear stress
= (0.707 on 0.30Fu)
a )(L)( the weld for a 1mm width of
effective throat.
250 2. The 374.19
maximumN/mmforce
= 0.707
peramm
(1mm)(145) : a = 3.65 mm
of the weld.
3. The required leg size of the fillet weld to SAY
be4used.
mm Ans.

## 1. M = 50 x 0.15 = 7.5 KNm

Ix = 2 ( 1 x 2503 / 12 ) = 2.6 x 106 mm4
DIRECT SHEAR :

P = 50 KN P 50x 103
fD = ----- = -------------- = 100 Mpa = 100 N/mm
A 2 (1 x 250)
plate thickness
BENDING :
1 mm 1 mm
fb
MC 7.5x106 x 125
fD fb = ------ = ------------------- = 360.6 Mpa = 360.6 N/mm
C = 125 M Ix 2.6x106
Ix
NA fv = √ fD2 + fb2 = √ 1002 + 360.62 = 374.19 Mpa Ans.

C = 125 fD
2. R = 374.19 N/mm Ans.
fb
Tension Members Riveted Connections
A
50 B

PROBLEM 1. Solution : 40 C
bgross = 340

g’ = 95
Hole diameter = 20+3 = 23 mm D
E

30 40
1. Chain AD : bnet = 340 – 2x23 = 294 mm
Chain ABD : 302 + ------------
bnet = 340 – 3x23 + -------- 302 = 277.17 mm
4x50 4(95+40)
302 402 702
Chain ABCD : bnet = 340 – 4x23 + -------- + ------- + -------- = 275.39 mm
4x50 4x40 4x95
302 402
Chain ABCE : bnet = 340 – 3x23 + -------- + ------- = 285.5 mm
4x50 4x40
USE : b = smallest = 275.39 mm

## 3 T = ANET x 0.6 Fy = 2753.9 x 0.6 x 248 x 10-3 = 660.95 KN

PROBLEM 2. Solution

HOLE DIA. = 34 + 2= 36 mm
S2
bnet = bgross – Σ holeØ + Σ------
4g

SOLUTION :

60 2 b2 1502 b2
1. Chain 1-2-3-4 : bnet = 400 – 4x36 + -------- + -------- + -------- = ----- + 321.25
4x100 4x100 4x100 400
60 2 (150 - b)2 (150-b)2 + 301
Chain 1-2--4 : bnet = 400 – 3x36 + -------- + ------------- = ------------
4x100 4x200 4x200
2 (150-b) 2
b
----- + 321.25 = ------------ + 301 : b2 + 300 b – 6300 = 0 : b = 19.7 mm
400 4x200
19.7 2
2. Chain 1-2-3-4 = Chain 1-2-4 : bnet = -------- + 321.25 = 322.22 mm USE
400
2 19.7 2
60
Chain 1-2--3 : bnet = 400 – 3x36 + -------- + -------- = 301.97 mm
4x100 4x100
A NET = bNET x t = 301.97 x 12 = 3624 mm2
3. P = ANET x 0.6 Fy = 3624 x 0.6 x 248 x 10-3 : P = 539.2 KN
y ex = 200
SOLUTION to PROB. 3. PH= 40(3/5)=24 KN PV = 40(4/5)=32KN
PV = 32
CRITICAL RIVET :
1. NOTE : Centroid located at center of group. Farthest rivet with
ex = 200 mm
ey = 40 + 80 + 70 = 190 mm 70 PDX PTX PDX PTX

## DIRECT LOAD : PD = P / n = 40 / 8 = 5 KN PDY PDY

ey
(Ans.) 120 PTY
2. PV = 32 PTY
TORSIONAL MOMENT :
R
M = PV ex+ PH ey = 32 x 0.2 + 24 x 0.19 = 10.96 KNm
40
x
TORSIONAL INERTIA : J = Σ ( X2+Y2 )
40 PH = 24 M
J = ( 8 x 602 ) + ( 4 x 402 + 4 x 1202 ) = 92800 mm2
120
TORSIONAL SHEAR COMPONENTS :
NOTE : Most stressed rivet : x = 60 , y = 120 PDX PTX PDX PTX

## PTX = M Y / J = 10.96x10 3 (120) / 92800 = 14.172 KN

PDY PDY
PTy = M X / J = 10.96x10 3 ( 60 ) / 92800 = 7.086 KN 60 60
PTY PTY
TOTAL TORSION : (Ans.)
PT =√ PTX 2 + PTY2 =√14.172 2 + 7.0862 15.84 KN FROM RIVET SHEAR STRESS : Single Shear
= (π/4) d2 = 20440 / 100
3. DIRECT SHEAR COMPONENTS : Av = R / Fv :
d = 16.13 mm SAY 17mm
PDY = Pv / n = 32 / 8 = 4 KN
PDX = PH / n = 24 / 8 = 3 KN (Ans.)
4. FROM RIVET BEARING :
COMBINED SHEAR & TORSION ( critical rivet ) :
Ab = R / Fb : (17 x t ) = 20440 / 225 (Ans.)
R =√ (PDX + PTX)2 + (PDY + PTY )2 20.44 KN t = 5.34 mm SAY 6 mm
ex = 200+100 = 300
5. Elastic (Vector) Analysis
P = 40 KN PV = 32
3 Note: Instantaneous Center
= 100 mm left of centroid
4 30 mm below centroid
Critical rivet
PH = 24
PDx = same = 3.0 KN Note: Critical rivet :
70 PDx PTx PDy = same = 4.0 KN x = 160 , y = 150
M = PV x 0.30 + PH x 0.22 = 14.88 KNm
PDy
80 J = Σ(X2+Y2) = 4x402 + 4x1602 + 2x1502
ey =220 150 PTy
PV = 32 + 2x702 + 2x102 + 2x902
R
= 157500 mm2
70 M 40 cg
PTX = M Y / J = 14.88x103 (150) / 157500
30
= 14.17 KN
PH = 24 10 ic
PTy = M X / J = 14.88x103 (160) / 157500
90 80 = 15.12 KN

## R =√ (PDX + PTX)2 + (PDY + PTY )2

60 60 R = 25.7 kN Ans.

40
fv = R / Av fv = 25700 / (π/4) 202
100
fv = 81.8 Mpa Ans.
160
PROBLEM 4. WELDING UNDER DIRECT SHEAR
A 200mm x 100mm thick steel plate is welded using 8mm fillet
weld as shown in the figure. If Fu = 483 Mpa, det. the following :
1. The shear capacity of the fillet weld
150 using Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(SMAW) process.
200 2. The shear capacity per unit length
T = te(L)0.3Fu of the fillet weld using SMAW process
150
3. The shear capacity of the fillet weld
using Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
For SMAW Process : te = 0.707 a process.

## 3. For SAW Process : If a ≤ 9.5 mm, use te = a.

If a > 9.5 mm, use te = 0.707a + 2.8 mm

## T = te (L) 0.3Fu = 8 (150+200+150) (0.3 x 483) x 10-3 = 580.56 KN

Tension Members Riveted Connections Review Innovations M2008-Davao
Engr. Escoto

## PROBLEM 1. PROBLEM 2. PROBLEM 4.

A plate with a width of 400 mm and thickness of In the connection shown, a load P of 40 kN is
The tension member is composed of a 200x150x10mm 12 mm is to be connected to a plate of the same transmitted to the rivets by means of the plate.
thick angle connected using 20mmØ rivets as shown. width and thickness by 34-mm diameter bolts as
If Fy = 250 Mpa, det. the ff.: 10 shown. The holes are 2mm larger than the bolt P = 40 KN 3
diameter. The plate is A36 steel with yield 4
strength Fy = 248 MPa. Allowable tensile stress is
0.60 Fy. It is required to determine the value of b
50 so that the net width along bolts 1-2-3-4 is equal to 70mm
200
the net width along bolts 1-2-4.
40 80mm

80mm
45
30 40 80mm
60

150
1. The net area of the section. 60 60
2. The max. net area required by the Code.
3. The safe tensile capacity of the member.
200mm
1. Find the maximum rivet load due to
PROBLEM 3. effect of direct load alone.
1. Determine the value of b.
a) 4.3 kN c) 6.2 kN
Two plates 14mmx150mm and 10mmx200mm 2. What is the net area for tension.
b) 5.0 kN d) 7.3 kN
are lapped together using 25mmØ rivets as 3. Calculate the value of P so that the
2. Find the maximum rivet load due to
shown. The allowable stresses are : allowable tensile stress on net area
effect of equivalent moment alone.
Tension = 100 Mpa, Shear = 70 Mpa, will not be exceeded.
a) 12.7 kN c) 14.5 kN
Bearing = 120 Mpa. b) 13.8 kN d) 15.3 kN
Determine the following : 3. Find the minimum size of rivet that
can be used if allowable shear stress
1. The critical plate for tension. is 100 MPa.
10 x 200 a) 15 mm c) 17 mm
2. The maximum load carried by the connection
b) 16 mm d) 18 mm
considering tension failure of the plate.
2. The maximum load carried by the connection
T T 4. Find the minimum thickness of plate
considering shear failure on the rivet. that can be used if allowable bearing
2. The maximum load carried by the connection stress is 225 MPa.
considering bearing failure on the rivet. 14 x 150 a) 4.5 mm c) 6.0 mm
5. The safe tensile capacity. b) 5.0 mm d) 7.5 mm
6. The efficiency of the joint. 5. Find the total resistance & shearing stress
on the critical rivet if the Instantaneous
Center is located 100mm left and 30mm
down the centroid of the rivet group.
PROBLEM 5. WELDING UNDER DIRECT SHEAR
A 100mmx100mmx10mm thick angle is to be welded to a gusset plate as shown in the
figure. The angle has a cross-sectional area of 1900mm2 with neutral axis located
28.7mm from the corner edge of the angle. If Fu = 483 Mpa, determine the following :

## L2 1. The capacity of the welded connection

T2 Toe if Fy = 250 Mpa.
50 2. The maximum size of the fillet weld to be
T3 L3 = 100 T 100 used.
50
28.7 3. The total length of the fillet weld required.
T1 Heel 4. The length of the maximum size of the
L1
fillet weld at the toe of the angle.
5. L1 = L – L2 – L3 = 182.96 mm 5. The length of the maximum size of the
fillet weld at the heel of the angle.

## 2. Check : t = 10 mm > 6mm : Use amax = t – 1.5 = 10 – 1.5 = 8.5 mm

3. T = 0.707 amax (L) 0.3Fu : 285x103 = 0.707 x 8.5 ( L )(0.3 x 483) : L = 326.75 mm

## 4. T3 = 0.707amax(L3)0.3Fu = L3 T / L T3 = 100 x 285 / 326.75 = 87.22 KN

T1 = 0.707amax(L1)0.3Fu = L1 T / L T2 = L2 x 285 / 326.75 = 87.22 L2 KN

## Σ MT1 = 0 T2 (100) + T3 (50) = T (28.7) : 87.22 L2 (100) + 87.22 (50) = 285(28.7)

L2 = 43.73 mm
PROBLEM 6. WELDING UNDER COMBINED SHEAR and TORSION

## A bracket plate is welded to a frame and subjected to a vertical load of 40 KN as shown

in the given figure. Determine the following :

## 1. The centroidal torsional couple acting on

100mm the bracket.
2. The force carried by the weld due to
PV = 40 KN 3. The force carried by the weld due to
torsion alone.
P 4. The maximum force per mm of the fillet
100mm weld due to combined effects of direct
PH = 0 5. The appropriate size of the fillet weld if
Fu = 483.8 Mpa

100mm

150mm
SOLUTION to PROB. 6. PV = 40 KN PH = 0 y ex
100mm
1. CENTROID : LT = 100+150 = 250 mm
– – – 100 PV = 40 KN
LT x = Σ(LX) : (250) x = 100(50 ) + 150(75) : x = 65mm
– – – 50
CRITICAL
LT y = Σ(Ly) : (250) y = 100(100) + 150(0) : y = 40mm 15
CORNER

## ex = 100 + 65 = 165 mm PDX PTX PDX PTX

ey = 100 - 40 = 60 mm PDY
TORSIONAL MOMENT : PDY
PTY
M = PV ex+ PH ey = 40(0.165) + 0(.06) = 6.6 KNm (Ans.) PV = 40 PTY
ey = 60
100
x
PDY = Pv / LT = 40X103 / (100+150) = 160 N/mm PH = 0 M _
Y = 40
PDX = PH / LT = 0
(Ans.) PDX PTX PDX PTX
PD =√ PDX 2 + PDY2 =√ 160 2 + 0 2 = 160 N/mm
PDY 10 _ PDY
X = 65
3. PTY
TORSION : 75
PTY
L 2
TORSIONAL INERTIA : J = Σ(L)( --- + X2+Y2) 150
12
1002 1502
J = 100( ------ + 15 + 60 ) + 150(------ + 102 + 402
2 2
5.
12 12 R = (0.707 a )(L)( 0.30Fu)
J = 1.002X10 mm6 3
708.6 = 0.707 a (1mm)(0.3x483.8)
a = 6.91mm
:
TORSIONAL SHEAR : Most stressed weld corner . a = 6.91mm SAY 7mm (Ans.)
( x = 65, y = 60 ) PTX = M Y / J = 6.6x10 6 (60) / 1.002x10 6 = 395.21 N/mm
PTy = M X / J = 6.6x10 6 (65) / 1.002x10 6 = 428.14 N/mm
TOTAL TORSION : PT =√ PTX 2 + PTY2 =√ 395.21 2 + 428.142 = 582.66 N/mm (Ans.)

4. COMBINED SHEAR & TORSION : R =√ (PDX + PTX)2 + (PDY + PTY )2 708.6 N/mm (Ans.)
=
PROBLEM 7. WELDING UNDER COMBINED SHEAR and BENDING
Assuming the column and bracket does not control and
column P = 50 KN
using SMAW field welding process, determine the
following if the allowable shear stress on the fillet weld is
145 Mpa :
150 1. The shear stress on the weld for a 1mm width of
effective throat.
2. The maximum force per mm of the weld.
250 3. The required leg size of the fillet weld to be used.
1. M = 50 x 0.15 = 7.5 KNm
Ix = 2 ( 1 x 2503 / 12 ) = 2.6 x 106 mm4
DIRECT SHEAR :
P 50x 103
fD = ----- = -------------- = 100 Mpa = 100 N/mm
A 2 (1 x 250)
P = 50 KN BENDING :
plate thickness MC 7.5x106 x 125
fb = ------ = ------------------- = 360.6 Mpa = 360.6 N/mm
1 mm 1 mm Ix 2.6x106
fb
fv = √ fD2 + fb2 = √ 1002 + 360.62 = 374.19 Mpa Ans.
fD
C = 125 M 2. Ans.
Ix R = 374.19 N/mm
NA
3. R = (0.707 a )(L)( 0.30Fu)
C = 125 fD
374.19 N/mm = 0.707 a (1mm)(145) : a = 3.65 mm
fb
SAY 4 mm Ans.