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# Sub:- Heat Transfer

Batch :-A4
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Prepared by:-

## Name Enrollment No. Roll No.

Vanasiwala Krunal 130090119121 1319121
Patel Vivekkumar 130090119123 1319123
Wankawala Dhruv 130090119125 1319125

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What is Thermal Insulation?

## Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat

transfer (the transfer of thermal energy between objects
of differing temperature) between objects in thermal
contact or in range of radiative influence.

## The insulating capability of a material is measured

with thermal conductivity (k). Low thermal conductivity is
equivalent to high insulating capability (R-value),means
offers higher resistance to heat flow.
Low thermal conductivity (k) materials reduce
heat fluxes. The smaller the k value, the larger the
corresponding thermal resistance (R) value. As the
thickness of insulating material increases, the thermal
resistance—or R-value—also increases & heat flow
rate decreases.
But for the case of cylinder & Sphere,the
thermal resistance decreases as the Insulation
thickness increases up to certain limits. And beyond
this limit thermal resistance Also increase as
thickness of insulation increase.
insulation for which max heat flow occurs.
Critical radius of insulation for cylinder:-

## Consider a wire of radius r1 & surface

temperature T1.The pipe is insulated with the insulation
with the thermal conductivity Ki & outer radius r2.
In this case hest is conducted first through the
insulation & then it is convected to the environment.
Which is at temperature T  ,heat transfer co-efficient h.

## As we increase the radius of insulation(r2),the

conductive resistance increase & convective
resistance decrease .
To find the value of outer radius r2 for which heat
transfer rate is maximum.

T2

ln 
r2  1
 r 
 1 

2 K i L h(2r2 )L
. T1  T
Q
R cond  R conv

T1  T

ln 
r2 

 1 
r 1
2K i L h  2r2 L 
.
. . dQ
For Q  Qmax  0
dr2
 
d  T1  T 0
dr2  ln  r2  
  r1  1 
  
 2K i L h  2r2 L  
 1  
 1 T1  T    r2  1  1 
    2 0
  2K i L h(2L) r2 
2
  r2 
 ln  r1  1   
  
 2K i L h(2r2 L) 
 
1 1
  0
r2 (2K i L) h(2L)r2 2
1 1
 
K i r2 h
ki
 r2 
h

## The value of R2 for which the heat transfer

rate is maximum is called critical radius of
insulation
Experiment carried out on:-
Inside Material-Copper [K=385W/m K],
Insulation Asbestos [K=0.15W/m K]
We found following result
Critical radius of insulation for sphere:-
Consider a hollow sphere of outer radius r1 is
covered with a layer of insulation With outer radius r2
having constant thermal conductivity K. the sphere is
exposed to environment Where air is at temperature of
Tair & hair is heat transfer co-efficient of air.

1 1 1 1
  
4K  r1 r2  4r2 2 h
The heat flow rate can be expressed as:-

. (T1  Tair )
Q
1 1 1 1
  
4K  r1 r2  4r2 h 2

.
. . dQ
For Q  Qmax  0
dr2
. (T1  Tair )
Q
1 1 1 1
  
4K  r1 r2  4r2 h 2

d  1 1 1 1 
     0
 4K  r1 r2  4r2 h 0 
2
dr2

1 2
  3 0
K  r2 r2  h 0
2
r2  R c  critical radius of sphere  2K
ho
Thank You

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