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A 70-year old with thousands of

years of history
1. The pre-history
2. The ancient kingdoms
3. The European rule
4. The rise of nationalism and independence
5. The post-independence years
1. Sukarno era
2. Suharto era
3. Post-Suharto era
The pre-historic Indonesia (1)
• Pre-historic tools from clams, • The oldest fossil : 70,000 years
stone, 1.5 million years old old “The Java Man”
▫ Sangiran, Central Java
The pre-historic Indonesia (2)
• Human lived in Indonesia
as hunter-gatherers some
50,000 years ago

• 4,000 years ago (2,000BC)

the ancestors of modern
Indonesia arrived from
Taiwan or South China

• 3,000 years ago, early

Indonesians started
The pre-historic Indonesia (3)
• After farming, people “stays”, develop houses,
villages, rituals
• Around 1st century, there has been “cities”, and
trade with China, India (and religion spread)
The ancient kingdoms (1)

Sriwijaya (South
Sumatra), 7th century
Kutai (South Kalimantan),
Hindu, 4th century

Tarumanegara (West
Java), Hindu, 5th century
The ancient kingdom (2) - Sriwijaya
• A great maritime power by 7th
• A Buddhist high education
• Influence spread to Malaysia,
Singapore, Cambodia
Old kingdoms usually located near a
main river. Why?
Prambanan Hindu temple (8th century), Borobudur
Buddhist temple (9th century) near Jogjakarta (Mataram) –
evidence of great powers
Majapahit (Hindu), East Java, 13th

• The second superpower

• Area covers most modern
Indonesia and Southeast Asia
The legacy of this period
• Folk tales, myth, stories
• Rituals
• Arts (dances), sculpture
• Sanskrit words and names
The end of Buddha and Hindu era
• Majapahit kingdom ends in the 16th century;
other kingdoms have ended earlier
▫ The people ran away to Bali and developed the
Bali kingdoms

• Disaster, war, disease,

crop failure
The Islamic period (1)
• Islam was in Indonesia by the 13th century
▫ From Persian and Gujarat traders

• When Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms declined,

Islam spread faster
▫ In Java, Islam took some Hindu customs and
celebrations so people were acceptance
Early Islamic kingdoms
Ternate (North Maluku),
14th century

Samudra Pasai (Aceh),

13th century

Banten (West
Java), 16th Tidore (North Maluku),
century Demak (Central Java), 15th 15th century
Wali Songo (“The 9 wise men”) who
spread Islam in Java
By the end of the 15th century…
• Indonesia was a lot of
kingdoms, big and small

• Then a new era came when

people from the other part of
the world came to visit

• But let’s play a game

First contact: the Portuguese (and
• 16th century (1522): in search of
spices and spread the Roman
Catholic faith
▫ Conquered Malaka; trade deal with
Sunda Kingdom, then to Maluku

• Went home in 1575,

▫ Stayed in East Timor until 1975
Nutmeg from Banda
• The Spaniards briefly went to
Maluku but chose to stay in the
Portugese legacy in Indonesia
Jakarta Cathedral Vocabularies
• Sepatu (shoes) – sapato
• Gereja (church) – igreja
• Bangku (bench) – banko
• Bola (ball) – abola
• Kertas (paper) – cartas
• Meja (table) – mesa
The Dutch: they were here to stay
• The Dutch people from the
Netherlands also wanted
▫ Kept them warm during
winter and made food tasted

• In 1595 a Dutch company,

VOC, landed in Indonesia
▫ Later they controlled trade on
nutmeg, peppers, cloves,
▫ Trade became conquests!
From trade to colonialism
• Colonialism = ruled by people from
other country
▫ Farmers have to plant sugar,
tobacco and other crops and sell
them cheaply (or free!)

• By 1800, VOC was closed, and the

Kingdom of Netherlands ruled
most places in Indonesia
▫ Mainly Java, some of Sumatra,
Eastern islands

• Some people tried to fight

▫ Aceh and Bali was captured in early
Some people tried to fight…
… but they didn’t fight together

Let’s play games again!

Know your heroes
Nationalism movement
• Until the end of the 19th century, the struggle
against colonialism was scattered

• A new awareness in 1900s

• The name “Indonesia” started to be used

• Intellectual movements
• Nationalism movements in Latin America, The
Philippines, then the rise of Japan, inspired the
similar struggle against European colonialism

• World War II, then Japanese occupation

• Japan lost the War, Indonesia declared

Post-independence: Sukarno era (1945-
• Diplomatic and military struggle between the
Young Republic against Dutch (1945-1949)
Post-independence: Suharto era (1966-
Post-Suharto era