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Mathematics

SMU3013
WEEK 4: CHAPTER 2 : NUMBER SYSTEM

editedbynurhamiza
2.1 Subsets of real numbers
(i) Natural Numbers (N)

N = { 1, 2, 3, 4, …}
(ii) Whole Number (W)

W = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,…}
={0}N
(iii) Integers

Z = { …, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …}


= { …, -3, -2, -1}  {0}  {1,2,3, …}
= Z-  {0}  Z+
(iv) Rational Numbers (Q)
p 
 Q   : p  Z , q  Z  {0}
q 
Example 1 :
 1/3, -3 / 7, 46 = 46/1
Note :
 Every integers is a rational number because all
integers, p can be written as p/1.
 A repeating decimal and an ended decimal are a
rational number. Then, the rational number also
can be defined as:
 Q = { x | proposition number that represent x whether
it repeated or ended }
 Example 2:
(i) Decimal numbers ended

 1/2 = 0.5
 5/4 = 1.25
(ii) Repeating decimal numbers

 1/3 = 0.333…
 157/ 495 = 0.31717…
 2/3 = 0.666…
 Example 3:

 Convert 0.1515… to a ratio of two integers.

 Solution:

 Let x = 0.1515…

 100x = 15.15…
 100x – x = 15
 99x = 15
 x = 15/99 = 5/33 #
 Example 4:

 Convert –0.1666… to a ratio of two integers.

 Solution:

Let x = -0.1666…
100x = -16.666…
10x = -1.666…
100x – 10x = -15
90x = -15
x = -15/90 = -1/6 #
 Note : N W  Z  Q
 Example 5:

 Convert 0.2828282… to a ratio of two integers

 Solution:

 Solution:

 Let x = 0.28282858…

 100x = 28.2828…
 100x – x = 28
 99x = 28
 x = 28/99 #
(v) Irrational Numbers ( Q’ @ H)

 If the number is irrational, then the decimal representation


is non-repeating.
 Q’ = { x | x is a decimal number that not ended and
not repeated }
 Example 5:
2  1.414213652...
  3.14159265358...
 Note:
 Division by 0 is always ruled out. So, 3/ 0 and 0/
0 are undefined.
(vi) Real Numbers (R)

 R = { x | xQ  xQ’}
 = Q  Q’
(a) Positive Real Numbers (R+)
R+ = { xR : x > 0 }
(b) Negative Real Numbers (R-)
R- = { x R : x < 0 }
 Note:
 R = R+  {0}  R-
 then, N W  Z  Q  R
(vii) Prime Numbers

 A prime number is one that has no factor other than 1 and


itself.
 { x | x is a positive integer numbers (x1) that has no
factor other than 1 and itself }
 { 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, …}
(viii)Composite Numbers

 { x | x is a positive integer numbers (x1) and not a


prime number}
 { 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, …}
Note:
1 is not a composite number and not a prime number.
All composite numbers can be factorized uniquely as a
product of prime numbers.
10 = 2 x 5
14 = 2 x 7
18 = 2 x 3 x 3
2.2 Real Line Number
 The real numbers can be represented by points on a line. The
positive direction (toward the right) is indicated by an arrow.
We choose an arbitrary reference point 0, called the origin
(corresponds to the real number 0).
 Each positive & negative number x is represented by the
point on the line a distance of x units to the right and to
the left of the origin.
 Every point on the line (corresponds to exactly one real
number) is called coordinate and the line called coordinate
line or a real number line.
Negative numbers Positive numbers

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Example 6:
Draw the real line number for:
(i) {2, -1.5,  , 2/3, 2}

(ii) { x | xZ and x between –3 and 2 } = { -2, -1, 0, 1 }

(iii) {x  R|3  x  3}
Real Numbers (R)

Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers


(Q)

Rational Number Integers (Z)


Non - integer

Negative Integers Whole Numbers (W)

0 Natural Numbers (N)

Real Numbers System


2.3 Absolute Value
 The absolute value of a number a, denoted by | a |, is a
distance from a to 0 (origin) on the real number line.

 Example 7:

 |5|=5 |-3 | = 3 |0|=0


(a) Definition ( Absolute Value)
If a is a real number, the absolute value of a is
a if a  0
|a|=
-a if a < 0
Example 8:
i. |6|
ANSWER: | 6 | =6
i. | -7 |
ANSWER: | -7 | = -(-7) = 7
i. |3-|
ANSWER:
i. | 3 -  | = - ( 3 - ) =  - 3
(b) Properties of absolute value
(i) | a | = | -a |
(ii) | ab | = | a | | b |
(iii) a a

b b

(iv | an | = | a | n
Example 9:
Simplifying the absolute value of the following expression.
(i) | - 4 – x2 | = | - (4 + x2) |
= | 4 + x2| (by property (i))
= 4 + x2
 (ii) | 2x – 6 | = | 2(x – 3) |
= 2 | x – 3 | (by property (ii))
2.4 Distance between two points
 Absolute value also can be used to get the distance between
two points. For example, the distance on the real line
between the numbers –2 and 3 is 5.

-2 0 3
 Or, 5

 | 3 – (-2) | = 5 @ | (-2) – 3 | = 5
Then,
If a and b are real numbers, the distance between the points a and
b on the real line is
|b–a| or | a – b |
Example 10:
i. The distance between the number –8 and 2 is:

ii. Let A, B, C and D have coordinates -5, -3, 1 and 6


respectively, on a coordinate line. Find d(A, B), d(C, B),
d(O, A) and d(C, D).
2.5 Basic Operation of Real Numbers
(a) Axiom Equality

 Let a,b,cR
(i) Reflexive property a=a
(ii) Symmetry property a = b then b = a
(iii)Transitive property a = b and b = c, then a = c
(iv) Replacement property
 If a = b, then a can be replaced with b without denying the
truth of the statement.
(b) Operation for Real Numbers
(i) Addition : if 4, 9R
then, 4 + 9 = 13
(ii) Subtraction : 8–2=6
(iii) Multiplication : 1.2=2
(iv) Division : 42=2
(c) Properties of Real Numbers
Let a,b,c R . Then,
(i) Closure Property : a + b R , ab R
(ii) Commutative Property : a + b = b + a ;
ab = ba
(iii) Associative Property : (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
(ab)c = a(bc)
(iv) Identity Property : a+0=a=0+a
a.1=a=1.A
(v) Inverse : a + (-a) = 0 = (-a) + a
1 1
a .   1    . a ; a0
a a
1
a is called reciprocal of a.
(vi) Distributive property : a (b + c) = ab + ac
(b + c) a = ab + ac
Theorem :
If a, b, c, dR, then,
(i) If a = b then a + c = b + c
(ii) – (– a) = a
Proof :
(i) Let a = b
Since a + c = a + c (reflexive)
then, a+c=b+c # ( a = b)
(ii) – (– a) = – (– a) + 0 (identity)
= – (– a) + (– a + a) (Inverse)
= [– (– a) + (– a)] + a (associative)
=0+a (inverse)
=a# (identity)
Example 11:
Let a,b,c,dR. Prove that
(a + b)(c + d) = ac + bc + ad + bd
Solution :
(a + b)(c + d) = ( a + b)c + (a + b) d (distributive)
= (ac + bc) + (ad + bd) #
Example 12:
Determine whether N has closure property for these operation
addition (+) and subtraction ( -).
Solution :
Let a, bN
Then, it’s clearly that a + b N.
So, N is closed under addition.#
But, a – b isn’t necessarily N members.
Use counterexample: Let 5, 8 N
5 – 8 = -3N
N is not closed under subtraction (-) #
Example 13:
Determine whether set Z has closure property for these
operations *
a*b=
a  b 
ab
Given a, b Z, is a  b  Z ?
Solution:
Say that a = 5, b = 2
52=
5 2 7
 Z therefore a  b  Z
52 10

Z does not have closure property for operation *


Example 14:
Given that set R has the closure property for operation  and
defined as follows:
xy=x+y+1
Determine whether  is a commutative property.
Solution:
Given that x  y = x + y + 1
To show that y  x = x  y
yx=y+x+1
= x + y + 1 ( commutative in R)
=xy
2.6 Inequality
Symbol Meaning
a) > more than
b) < less than
c)  more than or equal
d) ≤ less than or equal
For any two real numbers a, bR, maybe
a = b or a  b or a  b
Example 15:
Symbol Meaning
a) x>5 x more than 5
b) x≤3 x less than or equal to 3
c) -2 < x <3 x more than –2 and less than 3
Theorem:
a) a  b & b  c, therefore a  c
b) a  b therefore a + c  b + c
c) If a  b & c  d, therefore a + c  b + d
d) If a  b and c  0, therefore ac  bc
e) If a  b and c  0, therefore ac  bc
f) If a and b, both positively if or both negatively and a  b
therefore 1 1

a b
2.7 Interval
 In geometry method, an interval is a segment of line.
 If a < b, therefore
(i) Closed interval from a to b is set
 { x| a ≤ x ≤ b } = [ a , b ]
(ii) Open interval from a to b is set
 { x| a < x < b} = ( a , b )
(iii) Half open interval and half closed interval from
a to b is set
 { x| a ≤ x < b } = [ a , b )
 { x| a < x ≤ b } = ( a , b ]
(iv) Infinite interval
{ x| x > a } = ( a , +∞ )
{ x| x ≥ a } = [ a , +∞ ]
{ x| x < b } = ( -∞ , b )
{ x| x ≤ b } = ( -∞ , b )
{ x| x is a real number } = ( -∞ , +∞ )
Example 15:
A nail is measured as 1.25cm within tolerance of 0.05cm.
a) What is the longest and shortest length of the nail?
b) Draw the real line number for (a).