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Repeated Reading Preview

 Introduction
Implications and and literature
 Method
Applications: An Eye–
 Results
Tracking Study  Discussion
 Ideas for
Krista Rich
• What is fluency?
• Reading rate + accuracy + comprehension
• Current study: automaticity in decoding, eye-tracking measures as proxy
for comprehension
• What is repeated reading (RR)?
• "Rereading short passages several times until a satisfactory rate is reached"
(Chang & Millett, 2013)
• Limited L2 support for RR
 Taguchi, Gorsuch, Chang
 L1 support for RR
Theoretical Frameworks
• Automaticity Theory (AT)
 LaBerge and Samuels (1974)
 Inverse relationship between early and late reading processes

• Verbal Efficiency Theory (VET)

 Perfetti (1985)
 Builds upon AT
 Both early and late reading processes can improve through intervention

Early processes Late processes

Decoding Text integration
Letter recognition Activation of background knowledge
Word recognition Metacognitive strategies
Early word comprehension Late word comprehension
Research Questions
(1) How does narrative rereading behavior affect early reading measures in adult
ESL students in terms of

(A) skip count,

(B) first run dwell time, and

(C) first fixation duration?

(2) How does narrative rereading behavior affect late reading measures in adult
ESL students in terms of

(A) total dwell time,

(B) run count, and

(C) regressions in count?

Early and Late Reading Measures
Measure Description
Skip count Skimming
Early reading First fixation duration Letter recognition
First run dwell time Word decoding/recognition; early word comprehension
Total dwell time Late word comprehension
Late reading Run count Rereading; late comprehension; text integration
Regression in count Confusion; text integration
• Participants
 31 intermediate IEP students
 14 males, 17 females

• Eye-tracking instrument
 SR Research EyeLink 1000 Plus
 Frequent calibration and validation

• Procedure
 3 readings of each text
 Speed + understanding
 Attentional comprehension questions

• Texts
 3 short narrative texts
 Carefully leveled
On an April afternoon in 1933, Aldie and John Mackay were driving along
the shores of one of Scotland's largest lakes, Loch Ness. The major road was
• Topics: The Loch Ness Monster;
brand-new, and Aldie was content surveying the area from the automobile. The Escaping slavery; Caribou
Scottish mountains are often rainy, but this day was beautiful. The trees were
green, and even the unexciting blue waters of the lake seemed to sparkle. Then • Approximate leveling measures
Aldie saw something she would always remember: the water moved, and a
giant creature seemed to rise out of the loch. It appeared to be black, with a  270 words
curved back. Aldie grabbed her husband's arm, trembling with terror, and  Types (unique words) to tokens
pointed. "Look at the beast!" she gasped, and John responded by immediately (number of words) .6
stopping the car.
For several minutes, the astounded couple stared at the loch as the  Lexical density .5
creature seemed to be "rolling and plunging," until the waters finally calmed  11–13 words per sentence
down. For several days, Aldie and John kept private about what had occurred.
After all, who would believe that they had witnessed a monster in Loch Ness? It  20–22 sentences
sounded ridiculous; people would think they were lying or, worse, that they  90% in the top 1000–2000 words of
were insane. English
Ultimately, though, the couple couldn't resist sharing their remarkable
story, and the information soon spread. As the Mackays had predicted, some  Flesch reading ease 76–78 (seventh-
people rolled their eyes and laughed. Many others listened with fascination, grade level)
Over the next few weeks, more people indicated they had seen the
"It was big as an elephant," said a local farmer.
"It was horrible," reported a schoolteacher.
"My heart stopped," recounted a visiting businessman, who said he saw the
beast while taking a walk. "It looked right at me."
Results: Research Question 1
(1) How does narrative rereading behavior affect early reading measures in
adult ESL students in terms of

(A) skip count,

(B) first run dwell time, and

(C) first fixation duration?

Results: Research Question 1
Results: Research Question 2
(2) How does narrative rereading behavior affect late reading measures in
adult ESL students in terms of

(A) total dwell time,

(B) run count, and

(C) regressions in count?

Results: Research Question 2
• Previous research corroborated and expanded

• VET supported: We can improve both early and late reading processes.

• RR validated

• Pedagogical implications
Reading Instruction
• Where is the focus?
• Grammar, vocabulary, comprehension
• Not usually reading fluency

• What does this mean for our students?

• Slow reading → Less reading → Less comprehension → Less confidence

→ Less enjoyment
• Repeated oral reading

• Oral paired rereading

• Repeated silent reading with a new purpose

• Echo reading

• Buddy reading

• Teacher read-aloud

• Radio reading ("readio")

• One-minute reading

(Stoller, Anderson, Grabe, & Komiyama, 2013)

Repeated Oral Reading
• 2–4 readings

• Set period of time

• Goal: Read farther with each rereading

(Stoller, Anderson, Grabe, & Komiyama, 2013)

Oral Paired Rereading
• Student A reads a set period of time and marks where he left off at the end.
"Student B follows along and assists Student A if necessary" (p. 7).

• When time is up, the students switch roles.

• Repeat steps 1 and 2.

• Goal: Read further in the second reading than in the first

(Stoller, Anderson, Grabe, & Komiyama, 2013)

Repeated Silent Reading with a New
• Ask students to read a previous passage for a new purpose
 Create a summary
 Graphic organizer
 Activate schemata
 Agree or disagree
 Compare and contrast

(Stoller, Anderson, Grabe, & Komiyama, 2013)

Echo Reading
• Stronger reader + Weaker reader

• Stronger reader reads a sentence or two. Weaker reader echoes the


• 4–6 minutes

(Stoller, Anderson, Grabe, & Komiyama, 2013)

Buddy Reading
• Pairs of similar reading ability

• Students take turns reading a text aloud (~1 minute each)

(Stoller, Anderson, Grabe, & Komiyama, 2013)

Teacher Read-Aloud
• Can be done with a CD instead

• The teacher reads a text out loud at a normal pace and students follow

• Mix it up: Students can echo read along.

(Stoller, Anderson, Grabe, & Komiyama, 2013)

Radio Reading ("readio")
• Allow students to practice beforehand

• Students "reread a passage aloud while sounding as much like a professional

radio announcer as possible" (p. 7).

• Note: Great for nonfiction texts and more advanced students!

(Stoller, Anderson, Grabe, & Komiyama, 2013)

One-minute Reading
• 1 minute, 1 time per week

• Students mark how far they read and keep a log of how many words they've
read each week.

(Stoller, Anderson, Grabe, & Komiyama, 2013)

The first official account of ice cream in the New World comes from a letter written in 1744 by a guest of
Maryland Governor William Bladen. The first advertisement for ice cream in this country appeared in the New
York Gazette on May 12, 1777, when confectioner Philip Lenzi announced that ice cream was available "almost
every day." Records kept by a Chatham Street, New York, merchant show that President George Washington
spent approximately $200 for ice cream during the summer of 1790. Inventory records of Mount Vernon taken
after Washington's death revealed "two pewter ice cream pots." President Thomas Jefferson was said to have a
favorite 18-step recipe for an ice cream delicacy that resembled a modern-day Baked Alaska. In 1813, Dolley
Madison served a magnificent strawberry ice cream creation at President Madison's second inaugural banquet at
the White House.

Until 1800, ice cream remained a rare and exotic dessert enjoyed mostly by the elite. Around 1800, insulated ice
houses were invented. Manufacturing ice cream soon became an industry in America, pioneered in 1851 by a
Baltimore milk dealer named Jacob Fussell. Like other American industries, ice cream production increased
because of technological innovations, including steam power, mechanical refrigeration, the homogenizer, electric
power and motors, packing machines, and new freezing processes and equipment. In addition, motorized delivery
vehicles dramatically changed the industry. Due to ongoing technological advances, today's total frozen dairy
annual production in the United States is more than 1.6 billion gallons.

Wide availability of ice cream in the late 19th century led to new creations. In 1874, the American soda fountain
shop and the profession of the "soda jerk" emerged with the invention of the ice cream soda. In response to
religious criticism for eating "sinfully" rich ice cream sodas on Sundays, ice cream merchants left out the
carbonated water and invented the ice cream "Sunday" in the late 1890's. The name was eventually changed to
"sundae" to remove any connection with the Sabbath.
Mr. Collins was not a sensible man, and the deficiency of nature had been but little assisted by
education or society; the greatest part of his life having been spent under the guidance of an
illiterate and miserly father; and though he belonged to one of the universities, he had merely
kept the necessary terms, without forming at it any useful acquaintance. The subjection in which
his father had brought him up had given him originally great humility of manner; but it was now
a good deal counteracted by the self-conceit of a weak head, living in retirement, and the
consequential feelings of early and unexpected prosperity. A fortunate chance had recommended
him to Lady Catherine de Bourgh when the living of Hunsford was vacant; and the respect which
he felt for her high rank, and his veneration for her as his patroness, mingling with a very good
opinion of himself, of his authority as a clergyman, and his right as a rector, made him
altogether a mixture of pride and obsequiousness, self-importance and humility.

Having now a good house and a very sufficient income, he intended to marry; and in seeking a
reconciliation with the Longbourn family he had a wife in view, as he meant to choose one of the
daughters, if he found them as handsome and amiable as they were represented by common
report. This was his plan of amends—of atonement—for inheriting their father's estate; and he
thought it an excellent one, full of eligibility and suitableness, and excessively generous and
disinterested on his own part.

His plan did not vary on seeing them. Miss Bennet's lovely face confirmed his views, and
established all his strictest notions of what was due to seniority; and for the first evening she was
his settled choice.
It is very seldom that mere ordinary people like John and myself secure ancestral halls for the
summer. A colonial mansion, a hereditary estate, I would say a haunted house, and reach the
height of romantic felicity—but that would be asking too much of fate! Still I will proudly declare
that there is something queer about it. Else, why should it be let so cheaply? And why have stood
so long untenanted? John laughs at me, of course, but one expects that in marriage. John is
practical in the extreme. He has no patience with faith, an intense horror of superstition, and he
scoffs openly at any talk of things not to be felt and seen and put down in figures.

John is a physician, and perhaps—(I would not say it to a living soul, of course, but this is dead
paper and a great relief to my mind)—perhaps that is one reason I do not get well faster. You see,
he does not believe I am sick! And what can one do? If a physician of high standing, and one’s own
husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but
temporary nervous depression—a slight hysterical tendency—what is one to do? My brother is also
a physician, and also of high standing, and he says the same thing.

So I take phosphates or phosphites—whichever it is, and tonics, and journeys, and air, and
exercise, and am absolutely forbidden to “work” until I am well again. Personally, I disagree with
their ideas. Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me
good. But what is one to do? I did write for a while in spite of them; but it does exhaust me a good
deal—having to be so sly about it, or else meet with heavy opposition. I sometimes fancy that in
my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulus—but John says the very worst
thing I can do is to think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad.
Limitations and Future Research
• Oral component

• Comprehension component

• Delayed post-testing

• Transfer effect

• Native English-speaker comparison

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