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# Design And Control Of Variable

## Speed Wind Energy Conversion

System Employing PMBLDC
Generator
• Wind Energy –Clean & pollution Energy System
• Remote Area –Massive amount of energy in the
form of Wind
• Standalone operation of WECS (wind energy
conversion system)
• Limitations of IGs (Induction Generator)
• Advantages of PMBLDC Generator
• MPPT controller
Key Points
• PMBLDC Generator
• Rectifier WECS
• Push-Pull Converter (wind energy
• MPPT(max. power point tracking) conversion sys)
Circuit Diagram
Modeling Of Wind Turbine And
Generator
Wind Turbine=Kinetic Energy Of Wind Mechanical Energy
PMBLDC Generator= Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy

## A. Wind Turbine Characteristics and Modeling

1
 Betz’s Law 𝑃𝑚 = 𝜌𝐴𝐶𝑝 𝑉𝑤3
2
𝑃𝑚 = mechanical power
𝜌 = air density
𝐴 = rotor swept area
𝐶𝑝 = power coefficient
𝑉𝑤 = wind velocity
𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
• 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑
• Power coefficient is depends on tip speed ratio (𝜆) & blade angle(𝛽)
𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑏𝑙𝑎𝑑𝑒 𝑡𝑖𝑝
• 𝑇𝑖𝑝 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
• characteristics of wind turbine (b) Power-speed characteristics of
wind turbine
B. Modeling of PMBLDC Generator(dynamic model)
• high power density
• high efficiency
• its brushless construction is easy to maintain and provides operation
reliability
• three stator windings and a permanent magnet as rotor

characteristics equations
of PMBLDC generator

## J =rotor inertia, ω =rotor speed and

τe =electromagnetic torque
• DESIGN OF POWER CONVERTERS
The WECS is designed using a push-pull DC-DC converter and a single
phase full bridge VSI as a DC- AC converter

## A. Design of Push-Pull DC-DC Converter

• it can manage high voltage conversion ratio compared to other
topologies
• The pulse width modulation (PWM) technique -regulate the duty
ratio of converter(to maintain o/p voltage)
• duty ratio of the power switches (DC) is as

## Where n= transformer turns ratio

• The input inductor is used to minimize the ripples at
the input of the converter

where,
(∆iLin)=ripple current through the input inductor
• The output capacitor provides a DC link for the
battery and the VSI.

Where,
(∆VCo) =voltage ripple through the capacitor
Fsc = switching frequency
• CONTROL STRATEGY
1. MPPT CONTROL METHOD
2. VSI Control Strategy
• voltage and current controller-compensating the load
variations
• voltage and current controllers –
i. an output AC voltage controller,
ii. a current controller
iii. a PWM controller.
• voltage controller is using a PI (proportional integral)
controller
• Current controller is using a P(proportional) controller
• The PWM controller provides switching signals using
unipolar PWM method
• Conclusion

## 1. We can design A WECS with sensor less MPPT control

which will have fast response time to perform under
varying wind speeds
2. The PMBLDC generator has been used with a push-pull
DC-DC converter for providing the MPPT control and
constant voltage for charging of the battery.
3. We can obtain maximum power efficiency by varying wind
speeds and under varying consumer loads
4. We can obtain THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) of output
voltages within the specified limits of IEEE 519 standard.
• References
1. Wei Liang and Weiguo Liu, “Key Technologies Analysis of Small Scale Non-Grid-
Connected Wind Turbines: A Review,” in Proc. of 2010 World Non-Grid-Connected
Wind Power and Energy Conference, pp. 68-73, Nanjing, China, Nov. 5-7, 2010.
2. K. Vijayakumar, N. Kumaresan and N. Ammasai Gounden, “Operation and closed-
loop control of wind-driven stand-alone doubly fed induction generators using a
single inverter-battery system,” IET Electr. Power Appl., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 162-171,
Mar. 2012
3. Brice Beltran, Tarek Ahmed-Ali and Mohamed El Hachemi Benbouzid, “Sliding
Mode Power Control of Variable-Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems,” IEEE
Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 23, no. 2, pp.551-558, June 2008
4. Alan Mullane, and Mark O’Malley, “The Inertial Response of Induction-Machine-
Based Wind Turbines,” IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1496-
1503, Aug. 2005
5. Woei-Luen Chen and Yuan-Yih Hsu, “Controller Design for an Induction Generator
Driven by a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine,” IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol.
21, no. 3, pp. 625-635, Sep. 2006
6. Adam Mirecki, Xavier Roboam and Frédéric Richardeau, “Architecture Complexity
and Energy Efficiency of Small Wind Turbines,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial
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“Performance Assessment of Micro and Small-Scale Wind Turbines in Urban
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8. Hyung-Woo Lee, Tae-Hyung Kim and Mehrdad Ehsani, “Practical Control for
Improving Power Density and Efficiency of the BLDC Generator,” IEEE Trans. on
Power Electronics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 192- 199, Jan. 2005
9. Nicholas Denniston, Ahmed M. Massoud, Shehab Ahmed and Prasad N. Enjeti,
“Multiple-Module High-Gain High-Voltage DC–DC Transformers for Offshore Wind
Energy Systems,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1877-
1886, May 2011.
10. Yu-Ming Chang, Jia-You Lee and Kuan-Hui Fang, “Design and Analysis of a Novel
Soft switched Push-pull Boost Converter,” in Proc. of Power Conversion
Conference, pp. 295-300, Nagaoka, Japan, Aug. 3-7, 1997.
11. M. Zhuang and D.P. Atherton, ‘‘PID controller design for a TITO system’’, IEE Proc.
Control Theory Appl., vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 111–120, Mar. 1994
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Design Of A Variable Nozzle Turbo Charger Controller,” International Journal of
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