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# Technical Seminar on

AND TECHNIQUES

BY
G.SUDHEER
16675A0105

## DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERIG

J.B INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &
TECHNOLOGY
CONTEN
TS
 INTRODUCTION  ISOLATION
COMPONENTS
 BASE ISOLATION
 ISOLATOR LOCATIONS
 CONCEPT OF BASE ISOLATION
 IN REAL SCENARIO
 PRINCIPLE OF BASE ISOLATION
 APPLICATIONS
 SUITABILITY OF BASE ISOLATION
 CONCLUSION
 FIXED BASE STRUCTURE VS
ISOLATED
BASE STRUCTURE
1.
INTRODUCTIO
 Earthquake by itself, is not a disaster, it is natural
N
phenomenon result from ground movement, sometimes
violent.

##  Theseproduce surface waves, whichcausevibrationof

the ground and structures standing on top.

##  Depending on the characteristics of these vibrations,

the ground may develop cracks, fissures and settlements.
1.
INTRODUCTIO
N

##  The possible risk of loss of life adds a very serious

dimension to seismic design, putting a moral responsibility
on structural engineers.

##  In recent times, many new systems have been developed,

either to reduce the earthquake forces acting on the
structure or to absorb a part of seismic energy.

##  One of the most widely implemented and accepted seismic

protection systems is base isolation.
2. BASE
ISOLATION
 Base isolation is one of the most widely accepted
seismic protection systems in earthquake prone areas.

##  It mitigates the effect of an earthquake by

essentially
isolating structure potentially dangerous ground
the from
 Seismic
motions. isolation is a design strategy,whichuncouples
the structure for the damaging effects of the ground
motion.
2. BASE
ISOLATION

##  The term isolation refers to reduced interaction between

structure and the ground.

##  When the seismic isolation system is located under the structure,

it is
referred as “base isolation”.

##  The other purpose of an isolation system is to provide an

additional means of energy dissipation, thereby reducing the
transmitted acceleration into the superstructure.

##  The decoupling allows the building to behave more flexibly

which
improves its response to an earthquake.
3. CONCEPT OF BASE
ISOLATION
 The concept of base isolation is explained through an
example building resting on frictionless rollers.

 When the ground shakes, the rollers freely roll, but the
building
above does not move.

##  Thus, no force is transferred to the building due to shaking

of the ground; simply, the building does not experience the
earthquake.
3. CONCEPT OF BASE
ISOLATION
3. CONCEPT OF BASE
ISOLATION

##  Now, if the same building is rested on flexible pads that

offer resistance against lateral movements, then some
effect of the ground shaking will be transferred to the

building
The above.
flexible pads are called base-isolators, whereas the
structures protected by means of these devices are called
base-isolated buildings.

##  The main feature of the base isolation technology is that it

introduces flexibility in the structure.
3. CONCEPT OF BASE
ISOLATION
COMPARISION WITH &WITHOUT BASE ISOLATION

## WITHOUT BASE-ISOLATION WITH BASE ISOLATION

3. CONCEPT OF BASE
ISOLATION

##  A careful study is required to identify the most suitable

type of device for a particular building.

##  High-risebuildings or buildings rested on soft soil

are not suitable for base isolation.
4. PRINCIPLE OF BASE
ISOLATION
 The fundamental principle of base isolation is to modify the
response of the building so that the ground can move below
the building without transmitting these motions into the
building.

##  When the ground moves the acceleration induced in the

structure will be equal to the ground acceleration and there
will be zero relative displacement between the structure and
the ground.
4. PRINCIPLE OF BASE
ISOLATION

##  The structure and ground move the same amount.

 A building that is perfectlyflexible will have an
infinite period.

##  For this type of structure, when the ground beneath the

structure moves there will be zero acceleration induced in
the structure and the relative displacement between the
structure and ground will be equal to the ground
displacement.
4. PRINCIPLE OF BASE
ISOLATION

##  So in flexible structures the structure will not

move, the ground will.
5. SUITABILITY OF BASE
ISOLATION
 Earthquake protection of structures using base isolation
technique is generally suitable if the following conditions are
fulfilled

motion.

##  The site permits horizontal displacements at the base of the order of

200
mm or more.

 Lateral loads due to wind are less than approximately 10% of the weight
6. Fixed Base Structure vs
Isolated Base
Structure
 During earthquakes, the conventional structure without seismic
isolation is subjected to substantial story drifts, which may lead to
damage or even collapse of the building.

##  Whereas the isolated structure vibrates almost like a flexible body

with large deformations or displacements restricted by the
isolation bearings.

##  The decoupling effect gives this extra advantange to isolated

structures.
6. Fixed Base Structure vs Isolated Base
Structure

##  The lateral forces of the isolated building are not only

reduced in magnitude but also fairly redistributed over the
floors, which further mitigates the overturning moment of
the structure.
6. Fixed Base Structure vs Isolated Base
Structure
7. ISOLATION
COMPONENTS
 Elastomeric Isolators
 Natural Rubber Bearings
 Low-Damping Rubber Bearings
 High-Damping Rubber
Bearings

 Sliding Isolators
 Resilient Friction System
 Friction Pendulum System
7. ISOLATION
COMPONENTS

 Elastomeric
Isolators
 These are formed of horizontal layers of natural or synthetic

## rubber in thin layers bonded between steel plates.

 The steel plates prevent the rubber layers from bulging and so
the bearing is able to support higher vertical loads with only
small deformations.

##  Plain elastomeric bearings provide flexibility but no significant

damping and will move under service loads.
7. ISOLATION
COMPONENTS
7. ISOLATION
COMPONENTS

Bearings
 A lead-rubber bearing is formed of a lead plug force-fitted into
a pre-formed hole in an elastomeric bearing.

.
7. ISOLATION
COMPONENTS

##  Isolation Systems based on

Sliding
 The second most common type of isolation system uses

structure.

##  In this type of Isolation system, the sliding displacements are

controlled by high-tension springs or laminated rubber
bearings, or by making the sliding surface curved.

##  These mechanisms provide a restoring force to return

the
structure to its equilibrium position.
Base isolation by sliding
7. ISOLATION
COMPONENTS

##  Friction Pendulum System

 The Friction pendulum system (FPS) is a sliding isolation system
wherein the weight of the structure is supported on spherical
sliding surfaces that slide relative to each other when the ground
motion exceeds a threshold level.
8. Isolator
Locations
 The requirement for installation of a base isolation system is

## that the building be able to move horizontally relative to

the ground, usually at least 100 mm.

##  The most common configuration is to install a diaphragm

immediately above the isolators.

##  If the building has a basement then the options are to install

the isolators at the top, bottom or mid-height of the
basements columns and walls.
8. Isolator
Locations
9. BASE ISOLATION IN REAL
BUILDINGS
 Seismic isolation is a relatively recent and evolving
technology. It has been in increased use since the 1980s,
and has been well evaluated and reviewed internationally.

##  Base isolation is also useful for retrofitting important

buildings (like hospitals and historic buildings).

##  By now, over 1000 buildings across the world have been

equipped with seismic base isolation.
9. BASE ISOLATION IN REAL
BUILDINGS

##  In India, base isolation technique was first demonstrated

after the 1993 Killari (Maharashtra) Earthquake.

##  Two single storey buildings in newly relocated Killari town

were built with rubber base isolators resting on hard
ground.

##  After the 2001 Bhuj (Gujarat) earthquake, the four-storey

Bhuj Hospital building was built with base isolation
technique.

##  All were brick masonry buildings with concrete roof.

9. BASE ISOLATION IN REAL
BUILDINGS

##  The figure shows the base isolation technique used in the

Bhuj
Hospital building with the help of Base Isolators.
10.
APPLICATIONS
 Base isolation provides an alternative to the conventional,

##  Base Isolation minimizes the need for strengthening

measures of adding shear walls, frames, and bracing by
reducing the earthquake forces imparted to the building.

##  Base isolation had the effect of reducing the earthquake

force demands on the superstructure to 60 to 70% of the
demands for a fixed-base structure.
11.

CONCLUSION
Seismic base isolation method has proved to be a reliable method
of earthquake resistant Design.

##  The success of this method is largely attributed to the

development of isolation devices and proper planning.

##  Adaptable isolation systems are required to

beeffective during a
wide range of seismic events.

##  Effortsarerequired to find the solutions for the

situationslike near fault regions where wide variety of
earthquake motions may occur.
REFERENCES

• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base_isolation
• https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1022-how-do-base-isolators-work