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EMT 245:


Razaidi Hussin
**Notes taken from WAN MOKHDZANI BIN WAN NOR HAIMI and Mr. Ahmad
Course Content

• Describe instruction cycles, machine cycles and

t-states, machine cycles, state diagram, state
processor functions, other states.
Instruction Cycles, Machine Cycles
and T-states

• The complete fetching and execution of one instruction

is called an instruction cycle.
• An instruction cycle comprises one or more machine
• A machine cycle is a basic operation the processor can
• Each machine cycle takes a minimum of 3 to a
maximum of 6 processor reference clock cycles.
• In this context a processor clock cycle is called a T-state
Machine Cycles

• The 8085A CPU can perform seven basic machine

operations. All but the bus-idle cycle involve the
transfer of data between the CPU and a peripheral
• The seven machine cycles are :
Opcode Fetch fetch the opcode of an instruction from memory
Memory Read read data stored at an addressed memory location
Memory Write write data to an addressed memory location
IO Read read data from an addressed input device
IO Write write data to an addressed output device
Interrupt Ack acknowledge an interrupt request
Bus Idle no bus operation
The 8085 Microprocessor Pin-Out

• 16 bits wide.
• Split into two groups:
- AD0-AD7 (multiplexed with data bus)
- A8-A15

8 bit
Function of Control Logic Inputs and

RD (o) A logic ‘0’ specifies the processor will read

the data on the data bus.

WR (o) A logic ‘0’specifies that the processor has

placed data (write) onto the data bus for
an external device to read.

S0 S1 IO / M (o) A 3-bit status code that specifies the operation the

processor is performing. (e.g 110 specifies the
processor is fetching an opcode from program

ALE (o) When this signal is logic ‘1’ the processor specifies
that it has valid address information on the CPU pins
Machine Cycle Status & Signals
Example of an Instruction Cycle

• Example Instruction : STA addr

Basic State Diagram

• The operation of the 8085A can be described with

respect to its state diagram ( it is a synchronous state
machine )
Basic State Diagram

• Irrespective of the particular machine cycle the

processor is performing, the 8085A performs basically
the same tasks during each T-state.
• The Tr-state is the state the machine enters following
a hardware reset to the processor.
• For all machine cycles, other than opcode fetch, the
state sequence is T1T2T3T1
• For opcode fetch machine cycles, the state sequence is
T1T2T3T4T1 or T1T2T3T4T5
 T6  T1 depending on the instruction.
Opcode Fetch Machine Cycle
Key to Timing Diagrams

Indicates a bus. Whilst the lines remain parallel the

individual bits of the bus remain unchanged.

Indicates a bus. Where the lines cross indicates a

possible change in logic level of one or more bits of
the bus.
Indicates a 0  1 transition of a digital signal

Indicates a 1  0 transition of a digital signal

Indicates a bus or a bit being in the Hi-Z state ( tri-
state )

The tail of the arrow indicates the cause of a signal

change. The head of the arrow indicates the affected
State Processor Functions

T1 State
• The status output pins of the 8085A, S0, S1, IO/M* specify the
machine cycle being executed.
– ( e.g opcode fetch S0 = 1, S1 = 1, IO/M* = 0 )

• AD0 - AD7 and A8 - A15 specify the address involved in a data

transfer machine cycle
(contents of program counter for opcode fetch or memory read
the second or third bytes of an instruction)
(contents of a CPU register pair, stack pointer register or temporary
register pair for other memory read or memory write machine cycles)
(contents of a temporary register in IO machine cycles. Note the
the same 8-bit address appears on both half of the address bus
for IO machine cycles)
State Processor Functions ( Continued)

T1 State (cont)
• Generates an address latch enable (ALE) signal to show valid
address information on the multiplexed outputs AD0-AD7.
• (Valid address is guaranteed on the negative edge of this signal
and can be used to externally latch the low byte of the address )

• The HALT flip-flop is tested. The HALT flip-flop is internal to the

8085A processor and can be set by a HLT instruction. If it is
found set the processor enters the T-halt state after completion of
the T1-state, instead of entering the T2-state.
– ( Note : The T-halt state is not shown on the simplified
state diagram)
State Processor Functions

T2 State
• At the commencement of the T2 state the processor tri-states its
multiplexed bus lines AD0-AD7 when executing any read
machine cycle.
• The processor then asserts the RD* control line when executing
a read cycle or the WR* control line when executing a write
• The processor then places the data to be written to memory or
an output device onto the multiplexed bus pins AD0-AD7 for
write machine cycles.
• The processor re-enables the multiplexed bus as an input bus,
following the assertion of RD* for read machine cycles.
State Processor Functions

T2 State (cont)
• The processor samples the input signal RDY. If RDY is set then
the processor next enters the T3-state. If RDY is cleared then
the processor next enters the Tw-state. ( Not shown on the
simplified state transition diagram)

• The processor samples the input signal HOLD. If the HOLD

input is set the processor sets an internal flip-flop, HLDA.

• If the machine cycle is an opcode fetch machine cycle or if the

machine cycle is to read a program byte from memory the
program counter is incremented.

• If the machine cycle is an interrupt acknowledge machine cycle

the processor asserts the INTA* control signal instead of RD*
State Processor Functions

T3 State
• For opcode fetch, memory read or IO read machine cycles the
processor deasserts the RD*control signal towards the end of this
• On the rising edge of RD* the data on the lines AD0 - AD7 is
latched into the designated processor register ( the instruction
register in the case of opcode fetch).
• For write machine cycles the processor deasserts the WR control
line towards the end of the state and it is incumbent on the external
device ( memory or output port ) to use this rising edge to latch the
data, placed on the data bus during T2, into the addressed memory
or IO location.
State Processor Functions

T3 State (cont)
• For read cycles the processor disables its bus receivers on AD0 -
AD7 following the rising edge of RD*.
• At the end of the T3-state the processor checks (in the following
sequence) :

Is T3 the last state in the current machine cycle. If no

(opcode fetch) the processor proceeds to the T4-state

Is the HLDA flip-flop set. If yes the processor proceeds to

the T-hold state ( not shown on the simplified state diagram )
State Processor Functions

T3 State (cont)

Is this machine cycle the last machine cycle in the instruction


If no the processor enters the T1-state of the next

machine cycle

If yes and the internal INTE flip-flop is set, the processor

checks its various interrupt inputs and if one is set the
processor sets its INTA flip-flop and resets the INTE
flip-flop before proceeding to the T1-state of the next
machine cycle.
State Processor Functions

T4 State (T5 & T6 states)

• The processor only enters the T4-state for opcode fetch
machine cycles. It uses this state to decode the instruction.
• For instructions which do not require any further machine cycles
for their execution, the processor also uses the T4-state for
instruction execution.
• However, for some single byte 8085A instructions, the single
T4-state does not provide sufficient time for instruction decoding
and execution. For this class of instruction, the processor uses
two more states, T5 and T6 states, for the execution phase.
• For six T-state opcode fetch machine cycles, the processor re-
samples the HOLD input during the T4-state and if asserted
sets the HLDA flip-flop.
Other States

• The T-halt state is entered after execution of the HLT
instruction. The instruction is executed in the T4-state of the
opcode fetch machine cycle by the processor setting the internal
halt flip-flop.
• In the T1 state of the next machine cycle the halt flip-flop is
tested and when found asserted the processor enters the T-halt
• In the halt state the processor checks the hold input signal and
the interrupt inputs (provided interrupts are enabled)
• If the hold input becomes asserted the processor sets the HLDA
flip-flop and then enters the hold state, where it remains until the
hold input is deasserted. Following deassertion of the hold input
the processor returns to the halt state.
Other States

HALT-state (cont )
• If a valid interrupt occurs, when in the halt state, the processor
resets the halt flip-flop, sets the inta flip-flop and resets the inte flip-
flop ( i.e. disables further interrupts ).
• The processor then proceeds to the T1-state of the next machine
• Note : Only in response to a valid interrupt can the processor
permanently leave the halt state.
• Great care must be taken when including halt instructions in a
Other States

• The processor can enter the T-wait state for all machine cycles
except the bus idle machine cycle.
• If, during the T2-state the processor samples the RDY input in
the deasserted state, the processor enters the T-wait state at
the end of the T2-state.
• In the T-wait state all bus and control signals remain as of the
end of the T2-state.
• When in the T-wait state, the processor re-samples the RDY
input. If it remains de-asserted another wait state ensues where
the process is repeated. If, on the other hand, the RDY input is
found asserted the T3-state of the machine cycle is entered.
Other States
Need for T-wait States

• Memory and I/O devices require a finite period of time between

receiving address and control signals ( read or write ) and
accessing the data at the designated address.
• Without T-wait states, the processor provides approximately 2.5
master clock cycles between issuing the address and reading the
data bus.
• If the peripheral device requires more than 2.5 clock cycles to
access the data, the processor will read invalid data.
• When writing data, the processor could write data to the incorrect
memory or IO location, if sufficient time is not provided.
• The introduction of T-wait states into the machine cycle increases
the time available to the peripheral to read or write data.
RDY Input Control

Circuit to selectively introduce one wait state :

Other States

• When an external device requests control of the system busses, it
does so by asserting the hold input line to the 8085A.
• The hold input line is sampled by the 8085A in the T2-state, T-4
state and T-halt state and if asserted sets the hlda flip-flop.
• The hlda flip-flop is tested in the last t-state of any machine cycle
and if set the processor enters the T-hold state.
• The processor remains in the T-hold state whilst the hold input
remains asserted. The processor tri-states its bus drivers effectively
isolating the processor from the system and thereby allowing an
external device to have control of the system busses.
• When the hold input becomes deasserted, the processor resets the
hlda flip-flop, leaves the T-hold state and reassumes execution of
machine cycles.