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To develop in the student the skills
necessary to fire the basic standard pistol

a. To develop the student correct
shooting techniques/habits.
b. To develop confidence, knowledge
and skills required to fire his weapon and hit
the enemy in combat.
• Designed for all physically and mentally
fit officers and authorized EP
• Who have not received instructions
• Not previously qualified(at least as
marksman) in record firing
Sequence of Presentation

A. Characteristics of the US M1911A1 Pistol

B. Operation and Cycle of Operation
C. Firing Malfunctions and Stoppages
D. Cleaning the Pistol
E. Inspecting the Pistol
F. Trouble Shooting
G. Repair
H. Classification and Identification of Ammo

Part II Marksmanship Proper

A. Phases of Training
B. Fundamentals of Marksmanship
C. Two Components of Pistol Marksmanship
D. Basic Firing Positions
D. Range Safety Procedures

• System of Operation ------------ Short recoil
• Length ---------------------------- 8.578 inches
• Weight w/ empty magazine --- 2.4 pounds
• Weight w/ full magazine ------- 3 pounds
• Length of barrel ----------------- 5.03 inches
• Caliber ----------------------------- 0.45 inches
• Rifling ------------------------------ 6 Grooves
• Muzzle velocity ------------------ 830 fts
• Muzzle energy -------------------17,000 lbs/in2
• Max Eff Range ----------------------- 50 m
• Maximum Range -------------------- 1,500 m
• Front sight ------- Blade,integral with slide
• Rear sight -------- Notched bar, dovetailed to
• Sight radius ------------------------- 6, 481 inches
• Safety Features ----- Manual safety lever, grip
Safety, half cock position
• Basic load ---------------------------- 14 rounds
• Trigger pull --------------------------- 5–6.5 lbs
Major Groups and Assemblies

Receiver Group

Slide Group

Magazine Assembly
Section Drawing of M1911 A1 Pistol
Exploded View of M1911 A1 Pistol
Each time a cartridge is fired, the parts
inside the wpn functions in a given
order. This is known as the functioning
cycle or cycle of operation
Cycle of Operation
• Feeding
• Chambering
• Locking
• Firing
• Unlocking
• Extracting
• Ejecting
• Cocking
• A magazine w ammo is placed in the
• The slide is pulled fully to the rear
•As it moves forward, it strips the top round from the
mag and pushes it into the chamber.
• The hammer remains in the cocked position,
and the weapon is ready to fire
•The weapon fires one round each time the trigger is
• Each time a cartridge is fired, the slide
and barrel recoils or move a short
distance thereby permitting the bullet
and expanding powder gases to escape
from the muzzle before the unlocking is
• The barrel then unlocks from the slide
and continue its movement to the rear,
extracting the cartridge case from the
chamber and ejecting it from the
• At the end of the rearward movement, the
recoil spring expands, forcing the slide
forward, locking the barrel and slide together.
During this rearward movement, the mag
feed another cartridge, the recoil spring is
compressed, and the hammer is cocked
• The weapon is again ready to fire. The same
cycle of operation continues until the ammo is
• As the last round is fired, the mag follower
strikes the slide stop, forcing it into the recess
on the bottom of the slide and locking the
slide to the rear. This action indicates that the
mag is empty and aids in faster reloading.
Firing Malfunctions and Stoppages

A. Stoppage – Unintentional interruption

in the cycle of operation. It occurs
when the pistol does not fire though no
fault on the firer.
B. Malfunction – Failure of a wpn to
function properly. Classified as defects
in the wpn that normally do not cause
a break in the cycle of operation.
Immediate Action in Case of Firing

• Prompt action taken by the firer to

reduce a stoppage
• Instinctive to the operator
• If stoppage occurs, immediate action is
automatically applied to reduce
stoppage w/o attempting to discover the
cause at that time
Kinds of Firing Malfunctions
1. Slide is fully forward, the hammer falls, and the
pistol fails to fire.
a) Manually cock the hammer w/o opening the
chamber and make additional attempt to fire.
b) If the pistol still fails to fire, wait for 30 sec, and
then raise the pistol.
c) Grasp the slide with the thumb and the first
finger of the non-firing hand, keeping the thumb on
the right side of the slide.
d) Pull the slide rearward rapidly to its full extent.
e) Rotate the pistol to the right allowing the
unfired rounds to drop out, release the slide and
allow it to return to the forward position,
chambering a new cartridge. CAUTION: Keep the
weapon pointed downrange during the
f) Aim and attempt to fire.
2. In the event that the slide is not fully forward,
remove the trigger finger from the trigger guard,
with the non-firing hand, attempt to push the slide
fully forward. If the slide will not move forward,
proceed as follows:
a) Bring the weapon to a safe position.
b) Remove the magazine.
c) Grasp the slide with left hand, pull the slide to
the rear, lock it with slide stop.
d) Inspect the chamber and remove any
e) Insert another loaded magazine into the pistol.
f) Release the slide.
g) Aim and attempt to fire.
Note: If the weapon does not fire after the
application of immediate action as outlined
above, a detailed inspection should be made to
determine the cause of the stoppage.
a) Disassemble the pistol
b) Clean all parts with a rag saturated with rifle bore
cleaner or any lubricating/penetrating oil.
c) Dry parts, apply a light coat of general purpose
lubricating oil and assemble the pistol.

Cleaning after firing the pistol

The pistol must be thoroughly cleaned as soon as
possible after firing in the following manner:
a) Disassemble the pistol.
b) Clean all parts with rifle bore cleaner and run it
back and forth through the bore several times. A
pistol bore brush may be attached to the cleaning
c) Run dry swabs through the bore and chamber until
they are clean.
d) Inspect the bore for cleanliness, (If it is not free of
all residue, repeat the cleaning process)
e) When the chamber and the bore are clean, coat
them lightly with oil.
f) Assemble the pistol.
g) Perform the test for correct assembly.
h) Apply a light coat of oil to the exterior surfaces of
the pistol.
Remove the magazine, inspect the chamber to
insure that it is empty and check to see that no
ammo is in position to be introduced.
• Do not actuate the trigger until the weapon has been
• With the pistol unloaded, cock the hammer and press
the safety upward into the safe (locked) position.
• Before starting an inspection, be sure to clear the
• Grasp the grip as the grip safety is depressed and
squeeze the trigger tightly 3 or 4 times.
• If the hammer fails, return pistol to organizational
maintenance or give it to a qualified repairman.
• With the pistol unloaded, cock the hammer, and w/o
depressing the grip safety, point the pistol downward
and pull the trigger 3 or 4 times
• If the hammer falls because the grip safety is
depressed by its own weight, return the pistol to
organizational maintenance.
• With the pistol unloaded, draw back the hammer until
the sear engages the half-cock position, notch, then
squeeze the trigger.
• If the hammer falls, return the pistol to organizational
• Draw the hammer back nearly to the full cock
position, do not squeeze the trigger, and then let
thumb slip off hammer. The hammer should fall only
to the half cock notch.
This test should be conducted only for the
purpose of testing and not often since numerous
repetitions of this cause damage to the hammer
and sear.
a) With the pistol unloaded, cock the hammer,
push the slide group1 ¼ inch to the rear and hold in
that position while squeezing the trigger.
b) Let slide group go forward, maintaining pressure on
the trigger. If the hammer falls, return pistol to
organizational maintenance.

c) Release pressure on the trigger and then pull it. The

hammer should then fall. If the hammer does not fall,
return pistol to organizational maintenance.
d) Check for a faulty disconnector which would
prevent the hammer from falling. The disconnector
should prevent the release of the hammer unless the
slide group is in forward position
Note: This also prevents the firing of more than
one shot with each squeeze of the trigger.
Trouble Shooting by the Operator
Malfunction Probable Cause Corrective action
Failure to feed The top cartridge in - Reload mag
the magazine is not
properly positioned

Dirty or rusty mag, - Clean and

Improper assy of lubricate,
mag, broken, damage Reassemble
or bent parts Replace mag
Failure to Chamber Obstruction or dirty - Clean and
chamber lubricate

Dirty or worn out Replace ammo


Weak recoil spring Replace recoil

Failure to lock The barrel locking ribs do Lubricate
not interlock with the locking
recesses in the slide

Lack of lubrication of Lubricate

operating parts

Dirty or burred barrel Clean

Locking ribs or locking

Weak recoil spring Replace

Broken barrel Replace

Failure to fire The hammer fails - Replace
but the primer of ammo
the cartridge is not ignited

Bent or broken hammer strut - RTOM

Broken firing pin - RTOM

Broken link pin - RTOM

Broken barrel lugs - RTOM

Failure to extract The cartridge case - Clean
is not removed chamber
from the chamber

Dirty chamber - Clean


Pitted chamber - RTOM

Broken or worn - RTOM

Failure to eject The cartridge case - Tap w/ the
is not ejected non- firing
from the pistol and hand the
obstructs the line of sight case twds
(also known as stove pipe) the firer

Faulty extractor or ejector - RTOM

Ruptured case - Remove the

through a
cleaning rod
Failure to cock Defective sear spring - RTOM

Worn or broken disconnector,

Sear or full cock notch - RTOM
on hammer

Miscellaneous Two or more shots fired in - RTOM

succession by one trigger

• Operators’ repair to the weapon will be

limited to replacement of the magazine.
• The magazine can be disassembled

- Complete Round
- Head (Bullet)
- Cartridge case
- Primer
- Propellant powder

JSP – Jacketed Soft point FPJ – Flat point Jacketed

FMJ – Full Metal Jacket LRN – Lead Round Nose
SJHP – Semi Jacketed Hollow point SWC – Semi- Wad Cutter
JHP – Jacketed Hollow point
WC – Wad Cutter
Classification and Identification of
a. Cartridge, Cal .45, Ball, M1911A1

- for use against personnel and

light materials.
- consists of metal jacket
surrounding a lead alloy core.
- the bullet tip is unpainted
b. Cartridge, Cal .45 Blank, M9
- simulate fire and for salutes
- single shot
- absence of a bullet
- tapered mouth

c. Cartridge, Cal .45, Dummy, M1921

- training for loading, unloading
and testing
- empty primer socket
- two (2) holes in the cartridge socket
- civilian version has a primer and
plastic head or slug
d. Cartridge Cal .45, Tracer, M26

- observation of fire, secondary effect

and for signaling
- consists of three (3) parts
1) copper plated or gilding metal-
clad steel jacket
2) slug of lead hardened w antimony
3) tracer mixture in the rear portion
of the jacket
- painted red, 3/16 inch from the tip
e. Cartridge, Cal .45, High Density Shot, XM261

- anti personnel
- 16 spheres incased incased in
sabot similar in shape to the ball

f. Other types (factory or hand-reload)

- glazer round
- wadcutters
- semi-wadcutters
- birdshots
- hollow points

Marksmanship Proper
Phases of Training

•Preparatory Marksmanship Training

•Range Firing
Fundamentals of Marksmanship

1. The gun must be aligned with the


2. The hammer must fall without

disturbing the lay of the gun.
Two Components of Pistol

A. Aiming – The Act of pointing to hit the

desired target.

B. Steady Hold Factor – The techniques of

holding the pistol as steady as possible while
aiming, breathing, and pulling the trigger.
1st Component of Marksmanship

Elements of Aiming

A. Front Sight – Placed on top of the barrel

attached to the front part of the slide. The position
of the front sight determines the direction of the
B.Rear Sight – Attached at the rear portion of the
slide where the front sight is aligned to produce
imaginary straight line towards a target.
C.Aiming Point – Reference point on the target
where the front sight post is aligned.
Phases of Aiming

A. Sight Alignment – Proper relationship between the

front and rear sights.
- Most important factor in attaining accurate shot.
B. Proper Placement of the Aiming Point – The Tip of
the front sight post should be placed on the desired
aiming point on the target.
C. Sight Picture – The proper relationship between the
rear sight , front sight and the aiming point.
a. Align sights with the aiming point on the target.
b. Front sight clear or distinct, while rear sight & aiming
point are blurred/hazy, why? Our eyes can’t focus on 2
or more objects at different distances at the same time

Front Sight



Bang ! Front Sight

Aiming Point



Errors in Sight Alignment

A. Angular Shift Error – Improper position

of the front sight post.

B. Parallel Shift Error – Improper

placement of the sight alignment on
the aiming point




2nd Component of Pistol Marksmanship

Elements of the Steady Hold

A. Stable Position - The proper positioning of the feet in

relation to the body weight of the firer to obtain
B. Breathing control and Relaxation – Proper holding of
breath at the right time of the breathing cycle to obtain
C. Trigger Control – Application of pressure on the trigger
to fire the weapon.
1st Element of the Steady Hold

How to get a Good Position

A. Bone Support – Just like a house, strong good

foundation to effectively withstand the repeated recoil
and weight of the pistol to make it stable.

B. Muscular Relaxation – Relax as much as possible to

avoid unnecessary muscle tension.

C. Natural Point of Aim on the Target – The most relaxed

position for holding and firing the weapon. – For
precision shooting.
Factors In Attaining A Stable Position

A. Stance – the peculiar position of the firers body while

holding the pistol and keeping it aimed at a particular
target. Individual differences due to indifferent body

B. Position – the relationship of the direction of the

shooter’s body to the target. – General Rule, the gun
must be pointed squarely or perpendicular to the

C. Grip – provides the shooter maximum control of the

weapon and maintaining natural sight alignment.
- Maximum control of the weapon

- The weapon must be held firmly and

the shooter must be able to apply
positive straight rearward pressure on
the trigger without disturbing the sight
1st Factor in Attaining Stable Position

Two (2) Types of Stances

A. Weaver/Isometric Stance – developed by an American

Jack Weaver, instead of facing the target squarely, the
weak side foot is placed slightly forward to so as to
point the weak shoulder slightly towards the target.

B. Isosceles Stance – the weapon is held by two hands

with the arms fully extended forward and locked at the
elbow forming an isosceles triangle with the body as
the base. (Ideal for multiple targets).
Steps in Getting the Proper Grip (Positive Grip)

Five (5) Points of Contact

1. Spread the index finger & the thumb of the shooting

hand apart to form a “V” shape.

2. Bend the wrist slightly downward to obtain proper angle

of contact and easier locking.

3. Stretch the trigger finger forward, letting it come to rest

flat against the pistol frame just above the trigger
guard. The thumb of the shooting hand should make
contact with the safety catch of the pistol.
5. The lower three grip fingers should come to rest closely
touching with each other, with the center bone of each
finger resting on the curved front surface or “front
strap” of the receiver to provide good control of the grip
as they put direct primary pressure on the front strap
straight to the rear.

6. By wrapping the weak hand around the strong hand,

better control is achieved.
Functions of the Other Parts of the Shooting Arms

A. Right Thumb – This is primarily use to control the

safety lever and depress the magazine release.

B. Trigger finger – It is used for pulling the trigger only. For

left-handed shooters, this can also be used to depress
the magazine release.
C. Weak Hand – It supports the shooting or
strong hand, for cocking the weapon and
inserting the magazine into the magazine well.

D. Thumb of the Supporting Hand – It is used to

apply rearward pressure to the hammer spur to
cock it and release the slide stop if in case the
slide is opened.
2nd Element of Steady Hold

Breathing Control

• Take a breath, lets it out, then inhales normally, lets a

little out until comfortable, hold and then fires (inhale,
exhale normally and hold your breath at the moment of
the natural pause, then the shot must be fired before
feeling any discomfort from not breathing).

• It is difficult to maintain a steady position keeping the

front sight at the specific aiming point while inhaling
and exhaling .

• Prolong respiratory: 8 – 10 sec

BREATHING CONTROL(Single Tgt- Long Distance)

Normal Breathing PULL Normal Breathing



Respiratory Pause HOLD SHOOT
(1 – 2 Sec) BREATH

FOR 8 – 10 SEC
Breathing Control (Multiple Tgts)

Trigger Trigger
Pull Pull


Target Target
Shoot Shoot
Normal Breathing

Trigger Control

• The application of pressure on the trigger to

fire the weapon.

•Proper trigger control is the independent

movement of the trigger finger in applying
uniform increasing pressure on the trigger
straight to the rear, without disturbing the
correct sight alignment until the weapon fires.
1. Remove slack
2. Apply initial pressure
3. Pull
• The trigger slack, or free play, is taken up first, and
the pulling pressure is continued steadily until the
hammer falls.
• If pulled properly, the firer will know exactly when
the hammer will fall, thus he does not flinch or heel
which can result in a bad shot.
• The firer must not apply pressure left or right but
increase finger pressure straight to the rear, only
the trigger finger must perform this action.
• A slight off center pressure of the trigger can cause the weapon to
move and disturb the sight alignment (Jerking/Flinching)

Flinching – is an automatic human reflex caused by anticipating the

recoil of the weapon.

Jerking – is an effort to fire the weapon at the precise time the

sights align with the target.

• A good-shot firer holds the sight of the weapon as nearly on the tgt
center or center of mass as possible and continues to pull the trigger
with increasing pressure until the weapon fires.

• A bad-shot firer tries to “catch his tgt” as his sight alignment moves
past the tgt and fire the weapon at that instant. This is called
“ambushing” which causes trigger jerk.

• “Follow through” is the continued effort of the firer to observe the

fundamentals during and after the round was fired.
Types of Trigger Motion

a. Uninterrupted/Smooth Trigger Motion – The

continues application of uniformly increasing
trigger pressure until the round is fired.
Commonly used in engaging multiple/timed

b. Interrupted Trigger Motion – The firer aligns the

sights & exerts initial pressure on the trigger
after which pauses for a while until he is ready
again to apply increasing pressure. Commonly
used in stationary-long distance tgt.
Kinds of Trigger Taps
a. Single Tap – an individual shot fired on the tgt.

b. Twin Tap – Two successive shots fired on the

tgt using two ( 2) distinct correct sight pictures.
( long distance firing)

c. Double Tap – two (2) fast successive shots fired on

the tgt using one sight picture only. This is used for
Advance Marksmanship Shooting.
Basic Firing

1. Ready-Rest Position

The weapon is held using the two-hand grip.

The arms are extended forward and locked
forming a 45 angle with the body.

• Standing Position

Face the tgt. Place feet a comfortable

distance apart, about shoulder width. Extend
the firing arm and attain a two-hand grip.
The wrist and elbows are locked and pointed
twds the tgt center. Keep the body straight w/
the shoulders slightly fwd of the buttocks.

In the kneeling psn, ground both knees or only the

firing side knee as the main support. If firing with one kee
on the ground, vertically place the foot under the buttocks.
The body weight may be rested on the heels and toes but
this consumes additional time. Extend both arms, and
lock the elbows and wrist to ensure solid arm control.

Note: During combat, there might not be enough time for

a firer to assume a position that will allow him to establish
his natural point of aim. Firing from a covered psn may
require him to adapt his shooting stance to available
4. Prone Position

Drop to the ground at about 15-30 degree angle to

the tgt. This automatically places you to the line of fire
which in turn forces you to lie on your chest. As the knees
hit the gnd, reach out with the left hand as far as possible
and plant it on the gnd. Extend the shooting arm fully,
keeping it parallel to the gnd. This way you’ll have full
extension when hitting the gnd. The supporting hand is
brought to the shooting hand and the body is rolled to the
side where the primary shooting arm is located. The feet
may be placed in any comfortable stable position.
Employment of the Fundamentals

a. Integrated Act of Shooting – The proper

application of the Fundamentals to fire the
weapon accurately.

b. Establishing a system – The “Step by

step” application of the Fundamentals
which the shooter must develop into a
habit so that he can hit the tgt accurately.
1. Stable Position – Stance, position & grip
2. Pistol up and aligned with the tgt
3. Lock elbows and wrist
4. Unlock safety
5. Insert trigger finger and remove slack
6. Apply initial pressure (breathing & aiming
7. Align sights (while inhaling and exhaling,
get correct sight alignment)
8. Get the proper placement of the aiming point (Correct
sight alignment)
9. Go back to correct sight alignment and hold breath
(prolonged respiratory pause)
10. Concentrate on front sight post (clear and distinct)
11. Pull the trigger slowly (if shot is not made, go back to
step 7 – 11)
12. Follow through ( the shooter must continue the
employment of the fundamentals after firing each
13. Recover correct sight picture
14. Safety up
15. Down pistol
Reloading Techniques

Step 1 : All magazines should face down with the

bullets facing forward and twds the
center of the body.

Step 2 : Know when to reload, count the # of

rds fired.

Step 3 : Proper loading. Obtain a firm grip of the

mag., knuckles of the hand are twds the
body, index finger high on the front of
the mag.(should touch the slug of the
first rnd) when withdrawing from the
Step 4 : Use the index finger to guide
the mag. Into the mag well of
the pistol while the shooting
arm is bent directly in front of
the body and slam the mag
to ensure that it is fully

Step 5: Know which reloading

procedure to use for
Cry for the tactical situation. There
are two (2) common systems
Reload of reloading
Damn (Rapid and Tactical).
Rapid Reloading

1. Place your hand on the next mag in the ammo pouch to

ensure there is another mag.
2. Withdraw the mag from the pouch while releasing the
other mag from the weapon. Let the replaced mag drop
to the ground.
3. Insert the replacement mag, guidingit into the mag well
with the index finger.
4. Release the slide if necessary.
5. Pick up the dropped mag if time allows. Place it in your
pocket, not back into the ammo pouch where it may
mix with the full magazines.
Tactical Reloading

1. Place your hand on the next mag in the ammo pouch

to ensure there is a remaining magazine.
2. Withdraw the mag from the pouch.
3. Drop the used mag into the palm of the non-firing
hand, which is the same hand holding the
replacement mag.
4. Insert the replacement mag, guiding it into the mag
well with the index finger.
5. As a rule, never let your chamber run empty.
6. Place the used mag into the pocket, do not mix it with
the full magazines.
Calling the Shots

• To state where the bullet

should strike the tgt
according to the sight
picture at the instant the
weapon fires.
Example: “High”, “a
little lower”, “to the left”

• If the firer does not call his

shot correctly in range
firing, he is not
concentrating on sight
alignment. Consequently,
he does not know what his
sight picture is as he fires.
1. Weapons must be handled carefully and are
never pointed at anyone you do not wish to

2. A weapon is always assumed as loaded until it

has been thoroughly examined and found out
to contain no ammo.

3. Obstruction should never be placed in the

muzzle of any weapon about to be fired.

4. Eye and ear protection is highly recommended

when shooting or near somebody firing.

5. All weapons are checked to ensure they are clear

of ammo and obstructions.

6. All firers are briefed on the firing limits of the

range and firing lanes. They must keep their fires
within prescribed limits.

7. All firers are to be instructed on how to load and

unload the weapon, and on safety features.

8. No one moves forward of the firing line w/o

permission from range officer.

9. Weapons are loaded/unloaded on the command

of the RO except during the conduct of courses
requiring automatic magazine changes.

10. Weapons are not handled except on the

command of the RO.

11. Firers must keep their weapon pointed

downrange when loading, preparing to fire, or firing.

12. A firer must not move from his position until his
wpn has been cleared and it has been placed in its
proper safety psn.
13. Safety personnel must inspect all wpns to ensure
that they are clear. To clear wpn, the firer must
remove the mag from the pistol, the slide must be
opened( the firer ensures that there is no round left
by looking at the chamber) and returned to its
closed psn. The wpn is pointed down range and the
trigger pulled to put the hammer down. The gun is
then holstered or placed in a bag.

14. Malfunction or failure to fire, due to or no fault of

the firer must be reported immediately. On command
of the RO, the wpn is cleared and action is taken to
allow the firer to continue with the exercise.
15. The guns mechanical or safety devices are never
trusted. In some cases, mechanical safeties maybe
be broken or jarred loose causing the gun to
accidentally fire when dropped.

16. Persons under the influence of liquor and/or any

prohibited drugs or had taken in liquor and/or drugs
w/n 48 hrs should not be allowed to fire in the range
or handle any kind of weapon.

17. Every individual must be defensive and on guard

against unsafe gun handling in the range or
elsewhere. If there are those who are violating safety
precautions, they must by cautioned, advised or
evicted from the range.


I. Familiarization Firing (Stndg) 5 NTL IPSC 3

II. Zeroing (Rested on table) 25 NTL IPSC 6
III. Basic Exercise (Stndg) 5 1.8 sec IPSC 3
(Stndg) 7 2.0 sec IPSC 3
(Stndg) 10 2.5 sec IPSC 3
(Kneeling) 15 3.0 sec IPSC 3
(Prone) 25 3.5 sec IPSC 3
IV. Record Firing (Same as Basic Exercise) 15
V. Field Course 11

Total: 50 Rds


Score Rating
66 – 75 Expert (90 – 100%)
51 – 65 Sharpshooter (73 – 89%)
31 – 50 Marksman (50 – 72%)
30 & Below Boloman (1000 ST)