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230 KV SUBSTATION

230 kV Substation Seminar

House Rules

• Observe silence

• Raise hand to question

• Avoid side discussions

• Turn off your cellular phones or keep it in silent mode


230 kV Substation Seminar

Seminar Objectives
• This seminar takes an in-depth look into the
components used in the transmission of electricity

• Learn typical configurations of switchyards


and substation
• Learn the operation of transformers, circuit breakers,
disconnects, current and potential transformers and
lightning arresters

• Learn the components which make up a typical


substation and how it feeds a distribution network
that supplies customers with electricity
230 kV Substation Seminar

Seminar Outline
I. Introduction
I.1 Power Substation
I.2 Transmission Lines
II. HV Outdoor Switchyard
II.1 Types of Substation Configuration
II.2 Outdoor HV Circuit Breakers
II.3 HV Disconnect Switches
II.4 HV Current Transformers
II.5 HV Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT)
II.6 Surge Arresters
II.7 Power Systems Communications
II.8 Typical HV Outdoor Substation Layout
230 kV Substation Seminar

Seminar Outline
III. Gas Insulated Substation
III.1 Sulfur Hexaflouride (SF6) Gas
III.2 Types of HV Substation

IV. Power Transformer


III.1 Classifications of transformer
III.2 Cooling Methods
230 kV Substation Seminar

Introduction
1. Uses of Power Substation:
• Line termination

• Switching

• Protection

• Metering and voltage transformation

• Control and stabilization between the


generating plant to the customer’s terminal
230 kV Substation Seminar

Introduction
2. Transmission Lines

The transmission lines serves as the linkage


between power generation and the power
substations which serve as a voltage
transformation point or switching or both.

The delivery capability of the substation is


dependent on the capacity of the transmission
lines.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
The arrangement of outdoor switchyard installation is
influenced by economic considerations, in particular the
adaptation to space availability and the operational
requirements of reliability and ease of operations.
1. Types of Substation Configuration
a) Single bus system
b) Single bus system with by-pass bus
c) Duplicate bus system
d) Duplicate bus system with by-pass bus
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
1. Types of Substation Configuration
e) Multiple bus system
f) Multiple bus system with by-pass bus
g) H-shape system
h) Three breaker system
i) Ring-bus system
j) Polygon system
k) One-and-a-half breaker system
l) Two breaker system
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
2. Outdoor HV Circuit Breakers
2.1 Dead-tank circuit breakers
A North American design using bulk oil
(old design) or SF6 (new design) as the
Interrupting medium.

SF6 power circuit breaker utilize the puffer


Principle of arc interruption. This principle
utilizes compressing SF6 during the opening
Stroke and exhausting compressed SF6
through the breaker contacts to extinguish the
Arc.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
2. Outdoor HV Circuit Breakers

2.2 Live-tank circuit breakers

A European design using SF6 as the


Interrupting medium. Its difference with the
Dead-tank design is the absence of a CT as an
Integral part of the breaker.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
3. HV Disconnect Switches
Disconnect switches or disconnectors are
mechanical swinging devices which in the open
position provide an isolating distance.

They are used primarily for isolation and


sectionalizing electric circuits such as buses,
lateral circuits or portions of main circuits, and
for special purposes such as testing and
Maintenance.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
3. HV Disconnect Switches
Types of disconnect switches:

a) Vertical-break

b) Side-break

c) Center-break
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
4. HV Current Transformer

A separate units of HV current transformers are


Required in live-tank circuit breakers installations.
They provide the necessary interface between the
HV and LV systems where protection, metering,
and control signals are obtained.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
5. HV Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT)
Capacitor voltage transformers or CVT are
installed in high voltage systems with
transmission voltages from 66 kV up to the
highest voltages in the EHV range.
Functions:
a) Metering
b) Protection
c) Sychronizing
d) Indication
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard

5. HV Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT)

They are often used simultaneously for coupling


carrier frequencies to power lines for purposes
of telecommunication, remote metering, selective
line protection and control.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard

5. HV Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT)

The CVT has a distinct economic advantages


at higher voltages over the conventional
electromagnetic voltage transformers. At
voltages of 100 kV and above, the selection
of a CVT over the conventional VT is
economically motivated by its duality of
function: as a standard voltage transformer
and as a coupler for high frequency
power line carrier system.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
6. Surge Arresters

Surge arresters in outdoor substations are used


for limiting over voltages. The protection zone of
the arrester is limited due to the traveling phenomena.
To ensure that the voltage across the protected
equipment is more or less equal to the surge
arrester’s protective level, it is necessary to maintain
a certain separation distance between the arrester
and the protected equipment.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
6. Surge Arresters

For rated voltages of 123 kV, the arrester should


not be farther than 15-meter from the
protected apparatus

For 245 kV up to 525 kV, the maximum distance


is 20-meter.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
7. Power System Communications:
1. Power line carrier (PLC) system
2. Use of fibre optic communication
PLC System
Carrier links using the HV transmission lines
or PLC systems are used by many power
utilities as the form of its communications.
They cater to the different communication
tasks required by the power utility which
includes the following: signals for telephony,
line protection, telemetering, remote control, etc.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
7. Power System Communications:

Fibre Optic Communication

The use of fibre optic communication has


continuously gained ground in recent years.
The reasons are mainly due to the growing need
for increased transmission capacity as well as
the enormous advantages of optical fibres over
copper cables.
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
8. Typical HV Outdoor Substation Layout
230 kV Substation Seminar

HV Outdoor Switchyard
8. Typical HV Outdoor Substation Layout
230 kV Substation Seminar

Gas Insulated Substation

Gas-insulated substation or GIS is usually of


modular construction. All components such as
busbars, disconnectors, circuit breakers,
instrument transformers and cable terminations
are housed in a grounded metallic enclosures
in which the primary insulating medium is
a compressed gas, usually SF6.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Gas Insulated Substation


Advantages:
1) Compact size

2) Low weight
3) High reliability
4) Safety against touch contact
5) Low maintenance
On-site erection time is short due to the extensive
prefabrication and factory testing of large assemblies
or complete bays.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Gas Insulated Substation


1. Sulfur Hexaflouride (SF6) Gas

Sulfur hexaflouride gas or SF6 is employed as


insulation in all parts of the GIS installation and
likewise used as the interrupting medium of the
circuit breakers.
SF6 is a highly electronegative gas (it readily
absorbs electrons to form negative ions) and has
A dielectric strength of about 89 kV/cm-bar in a
uniform field or about 3 times that of air.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Gas Insulated Substation

2. Types of HV Substation

There are several principal types of designs


for HV substations. They can be conventional
outdoor or indoor, gas insulated substation or
GIS, or can be a hybrid as summarized on
Table III.2.1.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Gas Insulated Substation


Table III.2.1
Principal Types of Designs
For HV Substation Installations
Basic Insulating Voltage Level, kV Application
Design Medium
Conventional Air 52-123 Outdoor/ ndoor

Conventional Air 123-800 outdoor

GIS SF6 52-800 Indoor/outdoor*

Hybrid** Air/SF6 245-500 outdoor

(*) special cases only


(**) station conversion, expansion or upgrading
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

One of the most important apparatus in the electrical


system is the transformer. This is used to transfer
power by electromagnetic induction between two or
more circuits at the same frequency. The power
transfer is usually accompanied with a change of
voltage and current.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

1. Classification according to size


1.1 Distribution transformer

Distribution transformers are used for


transferring power from the primary
distribution circuit to a secondary distribution
circuit.

rated 5 kVA up to 500 kVA inclusive


230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

1. Classification according to size


1.2 Power transformer

Power transformers are used for


transferring power in any part of the system
between the generator down to the primary
distribution system.

rated 500 kVA above


230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers
100 MVA Power Transformer
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers
100 MVA Power Transformer
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers
100 MVA Power Transformer
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

2. Classification according to insulation


2.1 Liquid-immersed transformers

Liquid-immersed transformers are those whose


core and coils are immersed in an insulating
liquid. The insulating liquid can either be
mineral or synthetic oil. Non-flammable
liquid-immersed transformers are required for
indoor installations
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power
PowerTransformers
Transformers
2. Classification according to insulation
2.2 Dry-type transformers

Dry-type transformers are those whose


core and coils are gaseous or dry compound
insulating medium. These type of transformers
are basically applied in LV up to MV systems
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

3. Classification according to location


3.1 Indoor transformers

An indoor transformer is one which,


because of construction, must be
protected from weather. They are usually
dry-type or the non-flammable oil-
immersed type.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

3. Classification according to location


3.2 Outdoor transformers

An outdoor transformer is of the weather-


resistant construction suitable for service
without the additional protection from the
Weather. They are usually of the mineral
oil-immersed type.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

3. Classification according to location


3.3 Station type transformers

Station type transformers are those designed


for installation in a power station or substation.
They are usually those that have voltages
above 34.5 kV in any of the windings.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers
3.5 MVA Station Transformer
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

3. Classification according to location


3.4 Padmounted transformer

A padmounted transformer is an outdoor


type used as a part of an underground
distribution system. The high and low
voltage bushings are provided with
enclosed compartments with the
corresponding cable systems entering from
below. They are mounted on a foundation
pad.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

3. Classification according to location


3.5 Pole-type transformers

A pole-type transformer is one which is


suitable for mounting on a pole or similar
structure.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

3. Classification according to location


3.5 Pole-type transformers

A pole-type transformer is one which is


suitable for mounting on a pole or similar
structure.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

4. Cooling Methods
Excessive heat is a catalyst to the rapid
degradation of the transformer insulation system.
It reduces the mechanical and dielectric strength
of the paper insulation. The loss of the insulation
means the loss of life of the transformer.
To safeguard the early retirement (failure) of
transformers, several factors must be taken into
consideration when loading. Each kVA rating of
a transformer is based on its rated temperature ris
of either 55oC or 65oC for oil-immersed and 55, 80
115 and 150oC for dry type.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

4. Cooling Methods
ANSI and IEC differs in identifying the various
transformer cooling methods.

4.1 ANSI standard

The various types of transformer cooling


methods as provided by the ANSI
standard are identified by the type letters
as shown on Table 4.1.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

4. Cooling Methods
4.1 ANSI standard

The type letter identify by a slash


indicates an upgraded capacity with
forced-cooling. It is possible that the
self-cooled rating can be raised to a
higher rating of one or two steps
depending on the number of auxiliary
cooling stages and capacity.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

4. Cooling Methods
4.1 ANSI standard
The Three phase transformer upgraded
capacity with forced cooling is given as
follows:

501 - 2499 kVA 1st stage = 1.5 self-cooled rating


2500 – 11999 kVa 1st stage = 1.25 self-cooled rating
≥ 12000 kVa 1st stage = 1.33 self-cooled rating
2nd stage = 1.66 self-cooled rating
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

Table 4.1
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

4. Cooling Methods
4.2 IEC standard

The identification of the type of cooling of


IEC standard transformers are identified by
four-letter symbols as described on Table 4.2.

The four-letter symbol indicating the type


of cooling is governed by the order of
arrangement of the letters given on Table 4.2
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

4. Cooling Methods
4.2 IEC standard

The first two symbols indicate the cooling


medium that is in contact with the windings.

The last two symbols indicate the cooling


medium that is in contact with the external
cooling system.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

4. Cooling Methods
4.2 IEC standard

An example of an IEC cooling designation is


“ONAN” which can be interpreted as follows:

ONAN the 1st letter “O” indicates that the


cooling medium in contact with the
winding is mineral oil.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers
4. Cooling Methods
the 2nd letter “N” indicates that the
kind of circulation of the cooling
medium in contact with the winding is
natural.

the 3rd letter “A” indicates that the


kind of cooling medium in contact
with the external cooling system is air.
the 4th letter “N” indicates that the
kind of circulation of the external
cooling medium is natural.
230 kV Substation Seminar

Power Transformers

Table 4.2
230 kV Substation Seminar

Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope


for tomorrow. The important thing is not
to stop questioning.
Albert Einstein
230 kV Substation Seminar

Thank You