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• Ceramics (classification)

• Clay products employed in building industry.

I. Tiles
II. Terracotta
III. Earthenware
IV. Stoneware
V. Porcelain
VI. Bricks
• Manufacturing process of common tiles.
• Types of common tiles used in building industries.
• Characteristics of good tiles
 A ceramic is an inorganic, non-
metallic solid prepared by the action
of heat and subsequent cooling.
 Ceramic materials may have a
crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or
may be amorphous (e.g., a glass).
 Ceramics now include domestic, industrial
and building products and a wide range
of ceramic art.
The earliest
ceramics made by
were pottery objec
ts, made
from clay, either by
itself or mixed with
other materials,
hardened in fire.
Later ceramics
were glazed and
fired to create a
colored, smooth A Ming Dynasty porcelain
surface. vase dated to 1403–1424
This category of materials includes things like tile,
bricks, plates, glass, and toilets.
 They are hard and brittle
 Strong in compression
 Weak in shearing and tension
 Withstands chemical erosion due to
acidic or caustic environments
 Withstands high temperatures
 Structural
 Refractories
 White wares
 Technical
 These type of ceramics demonstrate
enhanced mechanical properties under
demanding conditions
 Because they serve as structural
members,often being subjected to
mechanical loading,they are given the
name structural ceramics
 This type of ceramics include bricks,
pipes, floor and roof tiles.
Ceramic Roof Tiles
 A refractory material is one that can
retain its strength at high temperatures
 They are used in linings for furnaces, kilns,
incinerators and reactors.
 The oxides of aluminium, silicon and
magnesium are the most important
materials used in the manufacturing of
 This is a class of products that includes
porcelain, china, pottery, stoneware and
vitreous tile.
 They are white to off-white in
appearance and often contain a
significant glossy or vitreous component.
 Imperviousness to fluids, low conductivity
to electricity, chemical inertness and an
ability to be formed into complex shapes
are its properties.
Vitreous tiles

 It is also known as engineering, advanced
or special ceramics.
 It includes tiles used in space shuttles, missile
nose cones, ceramic disk brakes etc.
 It can be classified into three material
Oxides- alumina, beryllia, ceria, zirconia
Non-oxides- carbide, bioride, nitride, silicide
Composite material- combination of oxides
and non-oxides.
 Crystalline ceramics
 Non-crystalline ceramics
 These are not amenable to a great
range of processing.
 Methods for dealing with them tend to
fall into one of two categories-
Either make the desired shape by
reaction in situ, or
by forming powders into the desired
shape, and then sintering to form a solid
 Ceramic forming techniques include
shaping by hand, slip casting, tape
casting etc.
Crystalline Ceramic
 Non-crystalline ceramics, being glass
tend to be formed from melts.The glass is
shaped when in a state of toffee like
 Methods like blowing into a mould is
 Later heat treatments cause this glass to
become partly crystalline and this
material is know as glass ceramic whhich
is widely used for cooktops.
Ceramic Cooking Pot
Clay products employed in building
 a type of earthenware , is a clay-based unglazed or
glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
 Its uses include vessels (notably flower pots), water
and waste water pipes, bricks, and surface
embellishment in building construction, along with
sculpture such as the Terracotta Army and Greek
terracotta figurines.
 The term is also used to refer to items made out of this
material and to its natural, brownish orange color,
which varies
Terracotta designs outside
the Kantajew Temple,
Dinajpur, Bangladesh
Characteristics of Terra cotta
 - Fired clay

 - Typically hollow, formed by pressing clay into a mould, by

 hollowing out portions of a solid, or by extruding it.

 - Usually low-fired

 - Typically a reddish, unglazed ceramic material. It may also

 be a hard-fired glazed or unglazed ceramic material.

 - Durable (dependent upon the degree of firing)

 - Fireproof

 - Strong
Types of Terra cotta:

 Brownstone terra cotta

 Fireproof construction terra cotta
 Ceramic veneer terra cotta
 Glazed architectural terra cotta
Glazed architectural terra cotta
Ceramic veneer terra cotta
Fireproof construction terra cotta
Brownstone terra cotta
Typical historical uses for terra cotta included:

- Sculpture

- Unglazed units used for structural purposes

- Glazed units for building exteriors

 Stoneware is a vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic
made primarily from stoneware clay or non-refractory
fire clay.
 Stoneware is fired at high temperatures.
 It is nonporous and so does not need a glaze
 Traditional stoneware
 Fine stoneware
 Chemical stoneware
 Thermal shock resistant stoneware
 Electrical stoneware
 Traditional stoneware - a dense and inexpensive body. It is
opaque, can be of any colour and breaks with a conchoidal or
stony fracture. Traditionally made of fine-grained secondary,
plastic clays which can used to shape very large pieces.
 Fine stoneware - made from more carefully selected, prepared,
and blended raw materials. It is used to produce tableware and art
 Chemical stoneware - used in the chemical industry, and when
resistance to chemical attack is needed. Purer raw materials are
used than for other stoneware bodies. Ali Baba is a popular name
for a large chemical stoneware jars of up to 5,000 litres capacity
used to store acids.
 Thermal shock resistant stoneware – has additions of certain
materials to enhance the thermal shock resistance of the fired
 Electrical stoneware - historically used for electrical insulators,
although it has been replaced by electrical porcelain.
 A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing
material such as ceramic, stone, or even glass.

 Tiles are generally used for

covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other
objects such as tabletops.
 Historically, man has desired to create living spaces which
were beautiful, durable, and user friendly. with that in
mind, ceramic tile has been made by man for 4000 years.
 Beautiful tiled surfaces have been found in the oldest
pyramids, the ruins of Babylon, and ancient ruins of Greek
 Decorative tile work was invented in the near east,
where it has enjoyed a longer popularity and
assumed a greater variety of design than anywhere
in the world.
 During the Islamic period, all methods
of tile decoration were brought to perfection in Persia.
Glazed bricks relief tile wall,
the Ishtar gate at Babylon,
Painted and glazed tile around 575 B.C. ,Iraq.
of around 880 B.C,

glazed bricks relief tile wall,

from the palace of Persepolis
around 518 B.C. Iran
Relief tile of the early
13th century,
 The raw materials used to create tiles are all found in the
 These raw materials, like clay is quarried and refined.
 They are then mixed.
 A dry mixture of clay, Magnesium silicate and other
ingredients are pressed into a mould, and then fired at an
extremely high temperature.
 The ingredients used in this process are slightly wet.
 They are forced through a nozzle, which forms the tile’s
 Other methods of creating tiles are slush mould and
beehive kilns.
Types of Tiles:
 There are many types of tiles used for residential and
commercial applications.

1. Roof tiles

2. Floor tiles

3. Pebble tiles

4. Ceiling tiles

5. Wall tiles
Roofing Tiles:
 Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep
out rain, and are traditionally made from
locally available materials such as clay
or slate.
 Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are
laid in regular overlapping
Flooring tiles:
 These are commonly made of ceramic or stone.
 Recent technological advances have
resulted in rubber or glass tiles for floors as well.
Pebble tiles:
 Pebble Tiles is a composite material made
up of marble pebbles or pieces of natural
stone in different sizes, bound together with
a transparent white or colored resin.
Ceiling tiles
 Ceiling tiles are type of tiles used for covering ceilings
of rooms.

 Suspended ceilings
 Acoustic Ceilings
 Decorative Ceiling Tile
Wall Tiles:
 The concept behind using wall tiles is decorating
the interior of a home without adding much stuff
to the home.
 Here are some places around the home
that can benefit from tile applications.
 Ceramic tile is among the most common materials for
kitchen countertops.
 Because it's hard and water-resistant, it holds up
extremely well to the moist and often humid
environment of the kitchen.

 Mostly used on floor

 They are also commonly used in walls.

 Almost all backsplashes are made of tile because of its

natural water resistance.

 Some people prefer stone or marble, but these are

expensive materials.

 Tile is one of the cheapest flooring options,

especially compared to popular materials such as
hardwood and marble.
 Most tiles can withstand heavy use in living rooms
and the heat and moisture of bathrooms.

 Small decorative tiles make great accents for walls,

counters, and flooring.
 They usually come in stronger, deeper colours and
feature interesting patterns, often to complement the
colour of bigger tiles.
Some tiles can actually be used on the exterior walls of
your home.
 These are usually decorative ones made to look like
natural materials, such as wood and stone.
 They make great alternatives to exterior painting, since
they don't fade and can withstand most outdoor
Earthenware is the term
for pottery that has not been
fired to the point
of vitrification and is thus porous.
Many types of pottery have been
made from it from the earliest
times. Until the 18th century it was
the most common type of pottery
outside the far East.
Earthenware is a type of
clay that when fired to
make pottery is soft and can
be scratched with a knife. It
is opaque and has an earthy
or granular fracture. It is
generally easier to shape on
the wheel than porcelain.
Due to its porosity
earthenware must
be glazed in order to be
Earthenware articles may be thick and
heavy or as thin as bone china and
porcelain, though they are not translucent
and are more easily chipped. They are less
strong than stoneware.
Earthenware may be biscuit (or
"bisque") fired to temperatures
between 1000 and 1150 °C (1800
and 2100 °F) and glost-fired(or
"glaze-fired")to between 950 to
1,050 °C (1,740 to 1,920 °F), the
usual practice in factories and
some studio potteries. Some
studio potters follow the reverse
practice, with a low-
temperature bisque firing and a
high-temperature glost
firing.The firing temperature will
be determined by the raw
materials used and the desired
characteristics of the finished
After firing most earthenware
bodies will be colored white, buff
or red. For red earthenware, the
firing temperature affects the color
of the clay body. Lower
temperatures produce a typical red
terracotta colour; higher
temperatures will make the clay
brown or even black. Every clay has
a temperature at which the body
becomes weak and sags. Higher
firing temperatures may cause
earthenware to bloat.
Earthenware comprises "all
primitive pottery whatever the
colour, all terra-cottas, most building
bricks, nearly all European pottery
up to the seventeenth century, most
of the wares of Egypt, Persia and
the near East; Greek, Roman and
Mediterranean, and some of the
Chinese; and the fine earthenware
which forms the greater part of our
tableware today
Porcelain (also known as china or fine
china) is a ceramic material made by
heating materials, generally
including clay in the form of kaolin, in
a kiln to temperatures between 1,200
and 1,400 °C. Porcelain can informally
be referred to as "china" or "fine china.
Properties associated with
porcelain include
 low permeability
 Elasticity
 considerable strength
 Hardness
 Toughness
 Whiteness
 translucency
 resonance
 and a high resistance to chemical attack and thermal

 Forming
 Glazing
 Decoration
 Firing
 A brick is a block or a single unit of a kneaded
clay-bearing soil, sand and lime, or concrete
material, fire hardened or air dried, used
inmasonry construction
 Fired bricks are burned in a kiln which makes
them durable. Modern, fired, clay bricks are
formed in one of three processes – soft mud, dry
press, or extruded.
 Normally, brick contains the following
 Silica (sand) – 50% to 60% by weight
 Alumina (clay) – 20% to 30% by weight
 Lime – 2 to 5% by weight
 Iron oxide – ≤ 7% by weight
 Magnesia – less than 1% by weight

 The composition of porcelain is highly

variable, but the clay mineral kaolinite is
often a raw material. Other raw materials can
include feldspar, ball clay,glass, bone
ash, steatite, quartz, petuntse and alabaster.
The clays used are often described as being
long or short, depending on their plasticity.
 Long clays are cohesive (sticky) and have
high plasticity
 short clays are less cohesive and have lower
Porcelain can be divided into the three main
 hard-paste
 soft-paste
 bone china

(depending on the composition of the paste,

the material used to form the body of a
porcelain object and the firing conditions.)
Soft paste porcelain

It is to replicate Chinese porcelain by using

mixtures of clay and ground-up glass (frit)
to produce soft-paste porcelain. Soapstone
and lime were known to have been included
in these compositions.
Hard paste porcelain

 they were formed from a paste composed

ofkaolin and alabaster and fired at
temperatures up to 1,400 °C in a wood-fired
kiln, producing a porcelain of great hardness,
translucency, and strength.
 Eg.
Bone china

bone china was made from two parts of bone-

ash, one part of kaolin clay and one
part china stone, although this has largely
been replaced by feldspars from non-UK
Bathroom fittings

 Because of its durability, inability to rust and

nonporous nature (porcelain has an absorption
rate of less than .5%), glazed porcelain has been
in use for personal hygiene .
 porcelain chamber pots were commonly found
in higher-class European households
Porcelain toilet bowls, bidets and basins are still
produced, though the tougher stoneware is
more common.
 However bath tubs are not made of porcelain,
but often of so-called porcelain enamel on a
metal base, usually of cast iron.
Dry pressed brick

 The dry press method is similar to the soft

mud brick method, but starts with a much
thicker clay mix, so it forms more accurate,
sharper-edged bricks. The greater force in
pressing and the longer burn make this
method more expensive.
Chemically set bricks

 Calcium silicate brick nd concrete brick

Uses of brick

 Bricks are used for building, block

paving and pavement.
 Bricks in the metallurgy and glass industries
are often used for lining furnaces.
Manufacturing of common tiles
Raw materials

The main raw materials used in this process of making the tiles are:
1. clay minerals mined from the earth's crust
2. natural minerals such as feldspar that are used to lower the firing
3. chemical additives required for the shaping process.

The raw materials must be pulverized and classified according to particle

The step by step process is as follows :
1. Mixing the ingredients:
2. Secondary crushing
3. Third particle size reduction
Processing the tile
For many ceramic products, including tile, the body composition is
determined by the amount and type of raw materials. The raw
materials also determine the color of the tile body, depending on
the amount of iron-containing raw materials used. Batch
calculations are thus required, which must take into consideration
both physical properties and chemical compositions of the raw
Mixing and grinding

Once the ingredients are weighed, they are added

together into a shell mixer, ribbon mixer, or intensive
mixer. A shell mixer consists of two cylinders joined into
a V, which rotates to tumble and mix the material. A
ribbon mixer uses helical vanes, and an intensive mixer
uses rapidly revolving plows.
Sometimes it is necessary to add water to improve the
mixing of a multiple-ingredient batch as well as to achieve
fine grinding. This process is called wet milling and is
often performed using a ball mill. The resulting water-
filled mixture is called a slurry or slip.
Spray drying

If wet milling is first used, the excess water is

usually removed via spray drying. This
involves pumping the slurry to an atomizer
consisting of a rapidly rotating disk or nozzle.
Droplets of the slip are dried as they are
heated by a rising hot air column, forming
small, free flowing granules that result in a
powder suitable for forming.
Most tile is formed by dry pressing.
– In this method, the free flowing powder—containing organic binder or a low percentage of
moisture—flows from a hopper into the forming die.
– The material is compressed in a steel cavity by steel plungers and is then ejected by the
bottom plunger.
– Automated presses are used with operating pressures as high as 2,500 tons.
– Extrusion plus punching is used to produce irregularly shaped tile and thinner tile faster
and more economically.
– This involves compacting a plastic mass in a high-pressure cylinder and forcing the
material to flow out of the cylinder into short slugs. These slugs are then punched into
one or more tiles using hydraulic or pneumatic punching presses.
– Ram pressing is often used for heavily profiled tiles.
• With this method, extruded slugs of the tile body are pressed between two halves of a
hard or porous mold mounted in a hydraulic press.
• The formed part is removed by first applying vacuum to the top half of the mold to
free the part from the bottom half, followed by forcing air through the top half to free
the top part.
• Excess material must be removed from the part and additional finishing may be
needed.Another process, called pressure glazing, has recently been developed. This
process combines glazing and shaping simultaneously by pressing the glaze (in spray-
dried powder form) directly in the die filled with the tile body powder. Advantages
include the elimination of glazing lines, as well as the glazing waste material
(calledsludge) that is produced with the conventional method.
Ceramic tile usually must be dried (at high relative
humidity) after forming, especially if a wet method is
used. Drying, which can take several days, removes
the water at a slow enough rate to prevent shrinkage
cracks. Continuous or tunnel driers are used that are
heated using gas or oil, infrared lamps, or microwave
energy. Infrared drying is better suited for thin tile,
whereas microwave drying works better for thicker
tile. Another method, impulse drying, uses pulses of
hot air flowing in the transverse direction instead of
continuously in the material flow direction.

After a batch formulation is calculated, the raw materials

are weighed, mixed and dry or wet milled. In
centrifugal glazing or discing, the glaze is fed
through a rotating disc that flings or throws the glaze
onto the tile. In the bell/waterfall method, a stream
of glaze falls onto the tile as it passes on a conveyor
underneath. Sometimes, the glaze is simply sprayed
on. For multiple glaze applications, screen printing on,
under, or between tile that have been wet glazed is
used. In this process, glaze is forced through a screen
by a rubber squeegee or other device. Dry glazing
is also being used. This involves the application of
powders, crushed frits (glass materials), and
granulated glazes onto a wet-glazed tile surface. After
firing, the glaze particles melt into each other to
produce a surface like granite.
After glazing, the tile must be heated intensely to strengthen it and give it the
desired porosity. Two types of ovens, orAfter forming, the file is dried slowly
(for several days) and at high humidity, to prevent cracking and shrinkage. Next,
the glaze is applied, and then the tile is fired in a furnace or kiln. Although some
types of tile require a two-step firing process, wet-milled tile is fired only once, at
temperatures of 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit or more. Wall tile, or tile that is
prepared by dry grinding instead of wet milling (see #2 and #3 above), usually
requires a two-step process. In this process, the tile goes through a low-
temperature firing called bisque firing before glazing. This step removes the
volatiles from the material and most or all of the shrinkage. The body and glaze
are then fired together in a process called glost firing. Both firing processes take
place in a tunnel or continuous kiln, which consists of a chamber through which
the ware is slowly moved on a conveyor on refractory batts—shelves built of
materials that are resistant to high temperatures—or in containers called saggers.
• There are several types of tiles used for residential and
commercial applications.
• Tiles provide one of the most cost-effective and
environmentally friendly flooring choices.
• Tiles are made from natural clay and often from other
(recycled) materials.
• Tile manufacturing does not necessitate the use of
heavy chemicals or other harmful substances used to
make other flooring types. There are no trees to be cut
down as with hardwood floors, and the best part is
that tiles are durable and have a long lifespan.



• Ceramic tile comes in two forms:

glazed and unglazed.
• Unglazed tile is referred to as
quarry tile. Ceramic tiles are made
from clay and then heated.
• Inexpensive, durable
and natural option for
industrial, commercial
and residential tile
• Quarry tile is used a lot
in industrial settings
because it is so durable
and can also be used
• It has some other great qualities as well, such
as being less prone to chips and scratches. In
colder climates, freeze-resistant grades of
quarry tile are used to prevent any weather-
related problems.
• Like almost all tile types, quarry is porous,
which means that it can become stained
• The difference between
porcelain and ceramic is
that porcelain is fired at a
higher temperature,
making it more dense and
• Porcelain tiles are also less
porous, making them more
• For these reasons, most
porcelain tiles are suitable
for both indoor and
outdoor installations.
Porcelain tiles are hard to cut due to their density and
hardness, so the cost and labor involved is often higher.
Porcelain tiles are available in matte, unglazed or a
high-polished finish. In recent years, the prices have
become closer to those of ceramic tile.
• Mosaics are most commonly
used for smaller areas, such
as a bathroom or kitchen
backsplash, or even small
counter space areas. Mosaic
tiles are usually less than six
square inches and made of
porcelain or clay composition.
Many come in squares,
octagons, hexagons or other
unique shapes. The tiles are
also available in pre-mounted
paper or fabric mesh sheets.
• Marble is a versatile natural
stone which has been used for
centuries in homes to create a
luxurious and unique look.
• Because marble is a natural
stone, there are variations in
the color of each tile. Many
homeowners like this, as it
creates a unique, one-of-a-
kind design, while others
prefer a more consistent look,
like ceramic tile.
• Marble is porous and must be
sealed just like all other tile
• Natural Stone Tiles There are several types of
natural stone tiles which are used for flooring,
walls and more. These include:
1. Granite
2. Slate
3. Travertine
4. Onyx
5. Sandstone
6. Marble
• Granite tiles are naturally antibacterial and
aren’t damaged by water contact ,this is why
they are such a great choice for kitchen and
bathroom applications.
• Granite – Granite has been used for
countertops for years, and it is also used for
shower walls and bathroom counters
• Slate is a fine-grained, rock derived from an
original shale-type sedimentary rock composed
of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade
regional metamorphism.
• Slate tiles are growing in popularity due to their
versatility. They are even used as roofing shingles.
• Slate is a natural material and is available in
several color ranges, from gray to purple to black.
• Slate is used outside as well as inside because of
its natural look and range of colors.
• Travertine is a form of limestone deposited
by mineral springs, especially hot springs.
Travertine often has a fibrous or concentric
appearance and exists in white, tan, cream-
colored, and even rusty varieties
• Travertine – Travertine is natural beige stone
and is used for bathroom flooring, kitchen
backsplashes, shower mosaics and more.
• Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony.
The colors of its bands range from white
to almost every color (save some shades,
such as purple or blue)
• Onyx – Onyx is well known for its
creamy, pearl-like look.
• Onyx is not a common choice for
flooring, but it is used on some
• It is used more frequently for skirting
around bathtubs and mosaics.

• A sedimentary rock formed of sand-

sized grains that have been either
compacted or cemented together.
• Sandstone is extremely durable, has a
grainy look and feel
• It is often used for wall applications.
• Marble is a versatile natural stone
which has been used for centuries in
homes to create a luxurious and
unique look.
• Because marble is a natural stone,
there are variations in the color of
each tile. Many homeowners like this,
as it creates a unique, one-of-a-kind
design, while others prefer a more
consistent look, like ceramic tile.
• Marble is porous and must be sealed
just like all other tile types.
Characteristics of a good tile
• this is the basic parameter which determines the choice of a
floor tile for the given premise. It specifies the resistance of
the tile to mechanical damage resulting from the impact of
the abrasive factor. The greater the hardness of the tile is,
the lower its susceptibility to scratching, wear and tear
during walking and abrasions etc.
• The resistance to abrasion consists in the specification of
the number of rotations of the device that rubs the surface
of the glazed tile after which the permanent traces of
abrasion become visible
Water Absorption
• Properly installed and grouted, ceramic tiles are
an excellent choice for use in wet areas. But
while the glaze of ceramic tiles is nonporous, a
glaze tile may absorb water through its body.
Any glazed or unglazed ceramic tile that absorbs
more than 3% moisture is unsuitable for outdoor
usage in climates where freezing conditions may
Bathroom tiles
Kitchen tiles

• Freeze resistance is directly relevant to water

absorption in ceramic tiles. The less water a
ceramic tile absorbs, the greater its frost
resistance. Exterior applications require highly
frost resistant tiles. Often, porcelain tiles
become the material of choice for such
Fire Resistance

• Due to a noncombustible composition, ceramic tiles

are completely fireproof at any temperature.
• They work especially well around open flames, hot
objects (crockery, barbecues, etc.
• A ceramic tile surface will not alter, nor will they
produce any toxic gases, smoke or fumes during a
• Ceramic tiles will not burn or feed to a fire in any way.
• They also act as a protection for structural surfaces.
Mechanical characteristics
Resistance to loads, such as the weight
of people and furniture to which floor
tiles may be subjected and which they
should be able to bear without suffering
damage. The tiles are tested for these
mechanical characteristics: resistance to
bending and bending breaking load.
The loads usually vary from heavy cots and fridges in household tiles and
heavy vehicles in garage etc.
Chipping off of tiles due to heavy load
Chemical characteristics
• Resistance to the corrosive or staining action
of substances that may come into contact
with the tile surface.
• These chemical characteristics are tested:
– Resistance to staining,
– Resistance to household chemicals, and
– Resistance to acids and alkaline.
Many tiles are prone to rust and
bleach when they come in contact
with certain chemicals or remain in
contact with water for too long.
Safety characteristics

The parameter used for slip resistance is

called the Coefficient of Friction (COF). The
higher the COF, the better the slip resistance of
the tiles. Unglazed tiles, mosaic tiles and rough
surfaced tiles are less slippery when compared
with smooth and glossy glazed tiles. Therefore,
these are recommended to be used in industrial,
kitchen, bathroom floor and swimming pool
The groves provide more friction and these type of tiles are used for
pavements and verandas.

• Tile that are stain resistant are hygienic and

easily cleaned. Glazed ceramic tiles resist
stains because of their glazed surface.
Porcelain tiles are made stain resistant
because of their compactness or low water
absorption characteristics.