Sei sulla pagina 1di 20

Lecture 11

Pete Vail Bob Mitchum

Modified from Van Wagoner et al., 1990


AAPG©1990 reprinted with permission of the AAPG
whose permission is required for further use.

Henry Posamentier George Ramsayer

John Van Wagoner Mac Jervey Rick Sarg

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Stratigraphic Analysis

Seismic Observations
are turned into
Stratigraphic Predictions
using Depositional Models

Seismic-Based EOD Map

Predicted Lithologies

Depositional Model

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
A Caution about Seismic Images

Seismic data has a resolution that is not as fine


as most stratigraphers are use to working

Units are often 10s to 100s of meters thick

meters
500

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Scale of Stratigraphic Correlation

• Using Outcrops or Cores High cm Very


60 Local
– Visually correlate laminae 40
and beds 20

– Units are centimeters thick 0

• Using Well Logs

Areal Extent
Well A Well B Well C
12

Resolution
– Pattern correlation of log 9

markers 6

– Units are meters thick 3

0
meters

• Using Seismic Data meters


300
– Seismic correlation of 200
bedsets and larger units 100
– Units are tens to hundreds 0 Basin-
of meters thick Low wide

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
The STRENGTHS of Seismic Data

• Good areal coverage


• Able to image major depositional units
• Able to identify potential source, reservoir,
and seal units
• Provides a stratigraphic framework within
which other data can be understood
– Well data Vail et al., 1977a

– Basin fill history


– HC systems

AAPG©1977 reprinted with permission of the AAPG


whose permission is required for further use.
Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04
L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
The WEAKNESSES of Seismic Data
• Limited vertical and lateral resolution: can’t
resolve “small” features
• Stratigraphic interpretation is limited by the
quality of the seismic data/imaging
• Seismic responses are non-unique – e.g., low
amplitude could be a massive sand or a thick
shale
• In new areas, we often have to ‘jump’ correlate
from adjacent outcrops or basins
• Post-depositional erosion and/or structuring can
hamper stratigraphic correlations and paleo-
depositional reconstructions
• Typically we can’t “see” hydrocarbons
Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04
L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Two Methods for Correlating

There are two basic ways to correlate


stratigraphy:
• By rock type i.e., Lithostratigraphy

• By age-equivalence i.e., Chronostratigraphy

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Lithostratigraphy

• Units are defined based on lithology


• Rock units vary in space and time
• Boundaries are subjective, and not physical
since lateral facies changes are gradational

‘A’ Sand
‘B’ Sand
‘B’ Sand

‘X’ Nonmarine Member


‘X’ Member
non-marine
‘A’ Sand
‘Z’ Shale ‘Z’ Shale

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Chronostratigraphy

• Units defined based on time-equivalent stratal


surfaces, natural stratigraphic subdivisions
• Chronozones vary in space but not time
• Correspond to physical boundaries, which can
generate reflections

Time Unit 1

Unit 3
Time Unit 2
Unit 2
Time Unit 3
Unit 1

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Question ???

What Do We Observe on Seismic Sections?


– Lithostratigraphic Units, or
– Chronostratigraphic Units?
A Thought Experiment:
– What geometry would we observe for a prograding
system

‘B’ Sand Unit 3


‘X’ Nonmarine Member Unit 2

Unit 1
‘A’ Sand
‘Z’ Shale

Lithostratigraphic? Chronostratigraphic?
Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04
L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Answer !!!

In a prograding depositional system, reflections


parallel stratal surfaces and therefore have time or
chronostratigraphic significance.

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Basic Tenet

• A basic tenet of seismic stratigraphy is that


seismic reflections parallel time lines

• Since stratal units above the scale of beds


mark units of time, we conclude that
seismic reflections are time-stratigraphic

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Why Is That ???

Recall: Reflections are generated where there is a change


in acoustic properties (z =  * v)
Consider: Where would sharp changes in impedance occur?
• horizontally as lithofacies change?
• vertically across stratal boundaries?
Brushy Canyon Formation, West Texas

Very Gradational Lateral


Changes in Physical Properties

There Can Be Abrupt Vertical


Changes in Physical Properties
Especially at PS Boundaries

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
How Can We Define Stratal Units?
We want to subdivide a seismic section into meaningful
stratigraphic units
How can we do this?
Consider for a moment how you would do this with a
photo of an outcrop

Wouldn’t you look for


evidence of a significant
breaks in deposition?

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
North Wall of the Grand Canyon

Paleozoic

Pre-Cambrian

The angular discordance between the Pre-Cambrian rocks and the


Paleozoic rocks marks an unconformity that separates an older
stratigraphic package from a younger stratigraphic package

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Seismic Example of Angular Discordance

There is angular discordance between


reflections at the yellow line

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Terminations: Base of a Sequence

Older
Older
Beds
Beds

Onlap Downlap
A base-discordant relationship A base-discordant relationship
in which younger strata in which younger inclined strata
terminate progressively against terminate progressively against
a surface of greater inclination a surface of lower inclination

NOTE: These definitions are based on observed geometric relationships, not


on inferred depositional processes

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Terminations: Top of a Sequence

Younger Younger
Beds Beds

Erosion Toplap
A top-discordant relationship in A top-discordant relationship in
which strata terminate along an which strata terminate against a
unconformity surface due to surface mainly as a result of
post-depositional erosion non-deposition (bypass)

NOTE: These definitions are based on observed geometric relationships


AND some inference about depositional processes

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Seismic Sequence
Mitchum et al., 1977a

Overlying Truncation
Toplap Unconformity

Underlying
Unconformity
Onlap

Downlap Internal
Convergence
AAPG©1977reprinted with permission of the AAPG whose permission is required for further use.

A depositional sequence is a relatively conformable succession of


genetically related strata bounded at its top and base by
unconformities or their correlative conformities.

A seismic sequence is a depositional sequence identified on a


seismic section

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis
Time for an Exercise

Line C: Offshore West Africa


Mitchum et al., 1977b
0.0 0

DEPTH KILOFEET
1.0
5
TIME - SECONDS

2.0 10

15
3.0
20

4.0

5.0

6.0
AAPG©1977reprinted with permission of the AAPG
0 5 KM whose permission is required for further use.
V.E. x 4
0 5 MILES

Courtesy of ExxonMobil FWS 04


L 11 – Stratigraphic Analysis