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Audio Information

and Media
What is an Audio?

•sound, especially when

recorded, transmitted,
or reproduced

•media communication
that uses audio or
recordings to deliver and
transfer information
through the means of
Types of Audio
Types of Audio Information

1. Radio Broadcast - live

or recorded audio sent
through radio waves to
reach a wide audience
Types of Audio Information

2. Music - vocal or
instrumental sounds
combined in such a way as
to produce beauty of form,
harmony, and expression of
Types of Audio Information

3. Sound Recording -
recording of an interview,
meeting, or any sound
from the environment
Types of Audio Information

4. Sound Clips / Effects -

any sound artificially
reproduced to create an
effect in a dramatic
presentation (ex. sound
of a storm, or a door)
Types of Audio Information

5. Audio Podcast - a digital

audio or video file or
recording, usually part of a
themed series, that can be
downloaded from a website
to a media player or a
Ways to Store
Audio Information
Ways to Store Audio

1. Tape - magnetic tape

on which sound can be
Ways to Store Audio
2. CD (Compact Disc) - a
plastic-fabricated, circular
medium for recording,
storing, and playing back
audio, video, and
computer data
Ways to Store Audio

3. USB Drive - an external

flash drive, small enough to
carry on a key ring, that can
be used with any computer
that has a USB Port
Ways to Store Audio
4. Memory Card (aka Flash
Memory Card or Storage Card) - is
a small storage medium used to
store data such as text, pictures,
audio, and video, for use on small,
portable, or remote computing
Ways to Store Audio

5. Computer Hard Drive -

secondary storage devices for
storing audio file
Ways to Store Audio
6. Internet / Cloud - websites
or file repositories for retrieving
audio files, and more precisely
the files are stored in some
datacenter full of servers that is
connected to the Internet
Audio File Formats
Audio File Formats
1. MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer 3)
- a common format for
consumer audio, as well as a
standard of digital audio
compression for the transfer
and playback of music on
most digital audio players.
Audio File Formats
2. M4A / AAC (MPEG4 Audio /
Advanced Audio Coding) - an
audio coding standard for lossy
digital audio compression. Designed
to be the successor of the MP3
format, AAC generally achieves
better sound quality than MP3 at
similar bit rate
Audio File Formats
3. WAV - is a Microsoft audio
file format standard for storing
an audio bitstream on PCs. It
has become a standard file
format for game sounds, among
Audio File Formats
4. WMA (Windows Media
Audio) - is an audio data
compression technology
developed by Microsoft and
used with Windows Media
Units of Sound

•or simply dB
•noise of sound

• or simply Hz
• unit of sound frequency

•unit of subjective
Characteristics and
Purposes of Sound
Characteristics of a Sound:

1. Volume – intensity
of a sound
Characteristics of a Sound:

2. Tone – the audible

characteristic of a
Characteristics of a Sound:

3. Pitch - is how high

or low a sound is
Characteristics of a Sound:

4. Loudness - refers
to the magnitude of
the sound heard
Purposes of a Sound:

•Give instruction or
• Provide feedback.
•To personalize or
Elements of Sound
Elements of Sound Design:

1. Dialogue - speech,
conversation, voice-over
Elements of Sound Design:

2. Sound Effects – any

sound other than music
or dialogue
Elements of Sound Design:

3. Music – vocal or
instrumental sounds (or
both) combined in such a
way as to produce beauty
of form, harmony, and
expression of emotion
Principles of Sound
Principles of Sound Design:

1. Mixing – the
combination, balance and
control of multiple sound
Principles of Sound Design:

2. Pace – time control,

editing, order of events
(linear, non-linear or
Principles of Sound Design:

3. Stereo Imaging – Using

left and right channel for
depth. This refers to the
aspect of sound recording
and reproduction.
Principles of Sound Design:

4. Transition – how you

get from one segment or
element to another
Types of Transitions
Types of Transitions:

1. Segue – one element

stops, the next begins
(“cut” in film)
Types of Transitions:

2. Cross-fade – one
element fades out, the
next fades in, and they
overlap on the way
Types of Transitions:

3. V-Fade – first element

fades to inaudible before
the second elements
Types of Transitions:

4. Waterfall – As first
element fades out, the
second element begins at
full volume. Better for
voice transitions, than for
Hearing vs. Listening
•the act of perceiving
sound by the ear
•requires concentration so
that your brain processes
meaning from words and
sentences. Listening leads
to learning.
So are you
listening or
just hearing?