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Visual Examination of

Welds
Training Program

VERMONT
YANKEE
NUCLEAR
POWER
STATION
Terminal Objective:

 At the completion of this


training program, the student
will be able to plan, perform,
and evaluate a visual
examination of welds during
fit-up, in-process, and upon
completion of the weld in
accordance with approved
procedures and drawings.
Enabling Objectives

1. Describe the welding


processes commonly used at
the plant site.

2. Define the terms related to


weld joint geometry and
configurations.

3. Demonstrate the ability to read


and interpret weld symbols
commonly used in construction
and maintenance activities at
the plant site.
Enabling Objectives

4. Identify profile deficiencies and


weld discontinuities related to
the AWS D1.1 and ANSI B31.1
codes.

5. Demonstrate the correct use of


gauges and inspection
equipment in the visual
examination of welds.

6. Demonstrate the ability to


examine and evaluate welds
per Vermont Yankee
Procedure.
Four Basic Welding
Processes
SMAW
Shielded Metal Arc Welding

GMAW
Gas Metal Arc Welding

GTAW
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

SAW
Submerged Arc Welding
SMAW
This process, sometimes called “Stick”
welding, is a manual process; that is,
one which is performed and
controlled by hand. This helps to
account for its high versatility.
Shielded metal arc welding is by far
the most widely used of the arc
welding processes. It employs the
heat of the arc to melt the base metal
and the tip of a consumable flux
covered electrode. This electrode
and the work piece are part of the
electrical circuit as show in the figure
below.

TP-5
Four Basic Welding
Processes
SMAW

SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING


Four Basic Welding
Processes
SMAW
Four Basic Welding
Processes
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

Gas tungsten arc welding (also called tungsten


inert gas, TIG) uses an electric arc between a
nonconsumable electrode and the work.
Shielding is obtained from an inert gas or inert
gas mixture. Filler metal may be added as
needed. The torch is usually water-cooled, but
may be air-cooled for low currents.
Four Basic Welding
Processes
GTAW

GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING


Four Basic Welding
Processes
Four Basic Welding
Processes

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

Gas metal arc welding (also called metal


inert gas, or MIG) uses the heat of an
electric arc between a continuous filler
metal electrode and the work. Shielding is
obtained entirely from an externally
supplied gas or gas mixture.
Four Basic Welding
Processes
Four Basic Welding
Processes
Four Basic Welding
Processes
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)

Submerged arc welding uses the heat of


an electric arc or arcs between a bare
metal electrode or electrodes and the
work, all buried beneath a shielding
blanket of granular, fusible material.
Four Basic Welding
Processes

SUBMERGED ARC WELDING


(SAW)
GROOVE WELD NOMENCLATURE
WELD LAYERS
Electrode 70,000 psi Position Type of
Tensile Electrode
Strength Covering
and
Current to
be used
E - ELECTRODE

R - ROD

B - BRAZING

EG - ROD WITH GAS

F - FLUX

ER - ELECTRODE OR ROD
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELDING
SYMBOLS
WELD
GAUGES
1. To determine the size of
a fillet weld

Place the gauge against the


toe of the fillet weld and
slide pointer out until it
touches structure as shown.
Read “Size of the Fillet
Weld” on face of gauge as
indicated by arrow.
2. To check the permissible
tolerance of convexity

After the size of a convex weld


has been determined, place
the gauge against the
structure and slide pointer
until it touches face of fillet
weld as shown. The maximum
convexity should not be
greater than indicated by
“Maximum Convexity Scale” as
indicated by arrow for the size
of fillet being checked.
3. To check the permissible
tolerance of concavity
and underfill

Place gauge against structure


and slide pointer out until it
touches the face of the fillet
weld as shown. If the pointer
does not touch as shown, the
fillet requires additional weld
metal.
4. To check the permissible
tolerance of reinforcement

Place gauge so that


reinforcement will come
between legs of gauge and
slide pointer out until it
touches the face of weld as
shown.
DEARMAN
GAUGE
This has similar functions to the Hi-
lo welding gauge but is more
applicable to small diameter pipe.
This gauge can provide
measurement of inside diameter
mismatch after fit-up, root
opening, undercut and pit depth,
weld reinforcement height, and
outside diameter offset.
DEARMAN GAUGE

Measuring Root Openings


DEARMAN GAUGE

Measuring ID Mismatch
FILLET WELD GAUGE

The fillet weld gauge offers quick


and precise means of measuring
the more commonly used fillet
weld sizes, one-eighth inch
through one inch. It measures
both convex and concave fillet
welds.
FILLET WELD GAUGE

Measuring Convex Fillet Weld Size

Measuring Concave Fillet Weld Size


Using forefinger, press down on top of
extended point until point comes in
contact with bottom of pit or
undercut, other pipe surface being
fitted up or weld crown. Each
indicator mark is 1/32 of an inch.
HI-LO WELDING GAUGE

Mismatch

Internal Misalignment on ID
after Fit-Up or Alighment

37 1/2o Bevel
(Common to Side View
most pipe of Top
and preps

Bevel on End Prep Fit-up Gap


after Tack-Up
or Alignment
HI-LO WELDING GAUGE

Length between scribe lines Pipe wall thickness after tack-ups


or alignment

Fillet Weld Sizes on Socket Welds and


Reinforcement of Butt Welds
GROOVE WELDS

Misalignment
A condition of excessive offset of the
inside diameter surfaces. If severe
enough, this condition can also cause
incomplete penetration.
GROOVE WELDS

Underfill
A depression on the face or root
surface of the weld surface extending
below the surface of the base metal.
Groove welds must be filled to the full
cross-section of the weld so that the
full strength of the weld is developed.
GROOVE WELDS

Undercut
A groove melted into the base material,
in the sidewall of in-process welds, and
adjacent to the toe of the crown or root
in completed welds, left unfilled by
weld metal.
GROOVE WELDS

Overlap (Cold Lap)


A condition in which weld metal
protrudes beyond the fusion line at the
toe of the crown or root of the weld.
Overlap produces a notch effect that
may be serious due to the resultant
concentration of stress when the weld
is under load. Overlap is usually
caused by insufficient travel speed or
incorrect electrode angle.
GROOVE WELDS

Excessive Reinforcement
Excessive reinforcement is undesirable
because it tends to stiffen the section
and its established notches that create
stress concentrations.
GROOVE WELDS

Excessive Root Concavity (Suck-Up)


A root surface condition in which the
weld filler metal arches inward from
the root.
GROOVE WELDS

Incomplete Penetration
Failure of adequately penetrating the
weld root and fuse the filler metal
and base metal, or the base metal
alone if no filler metal is used, at the
root of the weld.
FILLET WELDS

Many of the profile defects found in groove


welds are also found in fillet welds. However,
the terminology is slightly different.

 Insufficient Throat
A depression on the face of the weld
which reduces the cross-section of the
weld when measured at the depression.
Fillet welds must be filled to provide
enough cross-section so that the full
strength of the weld is developed.
FILLET WELDS

 Excessive Convexity
Excessive convexity, like overlap, tends
to produce notches which are serious
considerations in fillet welds because
they concentrate stresses when the
weld is overloaded. This discontinuity is
usually caused by low welding current
or slow travel speed..
FILLET WELDS

 Insufficient Leg
A discontinuity resulting when there is
not enough weld metal from the root to
the tow of the weld to provide the
required strength.
FILLET WELDS

 Bridging
This is a condition similar to incomplete
penetration of a groove weld, except
that it is at the root of the fillet weld.
FILLET WELDS

 Undercut
A groove melted into the base material,
in the side wall of in-process welds, and
adjacent to the toe in the completed
weld, left unfilled by weld metal.
FILLET WELDS

 Overlap (Cold Lap)


A condition in which weld metal
protrudes beyond the fusion line at the
toe of the weld. In fillet welds, it is of
additional importance since the effective
size of the leg can be reduced.
CRATERS
Discontinuities Found in the Weld
Metal, Heat-Affected Zone and
Base Metal of a Single-Pass Double
Fillet Weld in a T-Joint

Key to Discontinuities Shown

1a Porosity uniformly scattered 10 Seam and lap


1b Cluster porosity 12a Longitudinal cracks
1c Linear porosity 12b Transverse crack
1d Piping porosity 12c Crater cracks
2a Slag inclusion 12d Throat crack
4 Incomplete joint penetration 12e Toe crack
5 Undercut 12f Root crack
7 Overlap 12g Underbead crack in the heat-affected
8 Lamination zone
9 Delamination