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Problems associates with Edible

coating
NO. CONTENT
1 FDA APPROVAL AND REALITY
2 POLYSACCHARIDES
3.0 LIPIDS
3.1 ANEROBIC FERMENTATION
4 PROTEIN
5 Petroleum Wax
6 PHTHALATES
7 MORPHOLINE
8 CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE
9 (N)(6)-CARBOXYMETHYLYSINE
10 PARAFFIN
11 PATHAGENIC ORGANISM
12 Recent trends ..
13 qb
FDA REGULATION AND ITS MISUSE

• Federal Regulations- Title 21, Volume 3,Revised as of April 1, 2018


Sec. 175.125 (FDA ).

• Those adhesives should be prepared from one or a mixture of two or more of the
substances listed in this paragraph may be used as the food-contact surface of labels
and/or tapes applied to poultry, dry food, and processed, frozen, dried, or partially
dehydrated fruits or vegetables , on fruits and vegetables .

• CPG Sec. 562.550 Safety and Labeling of Waxed (Coated) Fruits and
Vegetables STATE THAT’S (FDA)
• Components of coatings for fruits and vegetables may consist of food additives
regulated under part- 172, where the condition of use permit this use; generally
recognized as safe (GRAS) substances, most of which are listed under parts 182 and
184; and substances that are prior-sanctioned for such use.

BUT
Polysaccharides
Sucrose When starch films are exposed during storage time in
low temperature and high humidity , it is possible to
obtain both physical and mechanical changes in their
Cellulose
nature. Physical changes may be those such as polymer
recrystallization and those due to the migration of low
Starch molecular weight components, such as plasticizers or
water contained in film formulation.

carrageenan

Pectin

Drawback :
• 1 . Sucrose fatty acid ester emulsifier normally call as snow-white
which should be avoid to diabetic people .
• 2. Polysaccharide are poor moisture barrier
LIPID BASE COATING
STERIC ACID

MINERAL OIL

CARNAUBA WAX

ACETYLATED MONOGLYCERIDE

RICE BRAN WAX

• Not removable by washing and get consume by human…. Which is


harmful .
• Cause anaerobic fermentation in fruits and vegetables ..
• Create various health problems
• Example steric acid
• As lipid based edible coating
do not get removed thus large This can happen due to manual coating..
amount of edible get excess amount of steric acid gets coated
on fruits by hawkers and small business
consumed even fruits are men ….
washed thoroughly ….

• HEALTH PROBLEMS LIKE……

• Damage and weaken the


immune system.

• When ingested , it can be


stuck to the throat system as
it can cause throat irritation
Anaerobic fermentation
• low respiration rate caused
due to thick coating of lipids
and wax cause disturbance
of the internal gas
composition of the product
due to high co2 and low
o2 cause problems…..
• Anaerobic fermentation of
apples and bananas leads to
rapid weight loss and foul
smell.
• rapid decay in cucumbers,
tomatoes and so on ……
PROTEIN
• Protein such as: soy, casein glutin and zein etc.
are hydrophilic to product and are easy to form..
Do not withstand to high moisture

DRAWBACK

High cost for production

Some of people are allergic to soy


protein

If consume in more amount can


accumulate and form stones in
kidney by use of casien.
Petroleum wax
• Ozokerite ,Ceresin, Montan Wax are mineral
waxes, derived from coal and shale.

• Paraffin and Microcrystalline Wax are derived


from petroleum.

• Petroleum wax are generally the by products


of petroleum refineries … thus is cost effective
Health effect of petroleum wax and
other wax
As all type of wax are hydrophobic they are hard to remove form skin
of fruits and vegetable .

It don't get digested …. And stay for a long time in gut …

Cause gastrointestinal problems .

Get stick on micro-villi of intestine.

Change blood pressure.

Can be one of the reason for hearth attack .


PHTHALATES
• The phthalates are added to the glycol and glycerol for reducing its viscosity and to
adhere to fruits. Generally act as a plasticizer /dispersant
• Different types of phtahalates are used in spray coating on fruits .
• It help the melted wax , or glycol and glycerol to adhere on surface of fruits and
vegetables
There are various phthalates used in food coating which are also used . and are harmful for
human consumption such as
• Bis(n-butyl)phthalate(dnbp, DBP)- used for– about a third of nail polish, cellulose
plastics, adhesives, perfumes and cosmetics, glosses, and insect repellents
• Diisooctyl phthalate(DIOP)- all-purpose plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl
acetate, rubbers, cellulose plastics, and polyurethane.
• Dimethyl phthalates - used in mosquitoes repellent
Continued
• In the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to
Environmental Chemicals (Fourth Report), CDC
scientists measured 13 phthalate metabolites in the
urine of more than 2000 participants aged of six
years and older who took part in the National Health
and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during
2003–2004.
which state that ,
“ The amount of phthalates that have entered people’s
bodies is entering body through edible coating and is
one of the major reason for nerve damage, kidney
damage ,liver damage it also increase the heart rate”.
MORPHOLINE
• Morpholine, O(CH2CH2)2NH is a common solvent and emulsifier used in the
preparation of wax coatings for fruits and vegetables.

• Morpholine, that are present naturally in fruits and vegetables probably does not
constitute a health risk.

• But….. Morpholine added artifically or by synthetic ways in wax are highly


harmful .

• According To Canada Health Hazard Assessment (HHA) 2008 report on Morpholine


in wax coatings of apples, safe dose of morpholine in humans is 4.3ng/body
weight/day.
• A Sufficient NMOR can be produced in the human gut after ingestion of
morpholine-treated fruits/vegetables to pose a health risk .
However,
during the digestion process if there are excess nitrites, mainly from naturally
occurring nitrate in the diet to form Nnitrosomorpholine (NMOR), a genotoxic
carcinogen.
• Morpholine was included in EPA (environment protection agencies, US) master
list for toxic substances control act in 1996 (61 fed. Reg. 65936, 13 dec 1996)

• Consumption of morpholine more than 30 ppm can cause liver and kidney
damage.
• Also can cause cancer as it breaks varies amino acids bond and make free radical
• Also one of the reason for stomach tumor …….

• In October 2010 U.K food standard agency has undertaken initial risk to as to use
0.03to 0.3 ppm to lower the consumer health risk … but no guaranty as study is in
process.

• One of the main lawsuits in 2010 was “ UK agency had a decision banning
imports treated with fruit wax containing morpholine from cheale .”

• European union has strictly banned morpholine

• But other countries such as India, Africa, china ,etc .the use of it is in large quantity.
CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE
• CMC is used as gum that increase viscosity or as
thickener .
• Used in manual coating /polishing .
• It is a food additive E-466
• It is less harmful but a study from “the new England
journal of medical ”reports that state women's can
have serious allergic reaction and uncommon
complication during pregnancy ,which is not a healthy
due to consumption of CMC
But still used in food industries due to its cheap
production and low cost
(N)(6)-CARBOXYMETHYLYSINE also
called as CML
• Cmls are used as for cut fresh fruits and vegetable have
ability for anti microbial and also reduce enzymatic
reaction .
• But problem associated with it is….
The accumulation of CML has been implicated in the
progression of age-related diseases.

CML’s have been implicated in Alzheimer’s Disease,


cardiovascular disease, and stroke.

Reduced muscle function is also associated with cmls


PARAFFIN

• Paraffin wax is a soft colourless solid, derived


from petroleum, coal or oil shale.
• It is solid at room temperature and begins to
melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F); its boiling
point is >370 °C (698 °F).
• Used as edible coating due to its shiny coating on
fruits and vegetables which make them more
appeling.
• Also have anti microbial , water resistant reduce
respiration rate
• Problem associate with parafin
• It melt at low temperature of 37 c

• And it cannot be remove by resin through water

• Problem associate on health by more consumptions of its as it gives stomach ace ,


nausea and vomit .

• It have adverse effect to heart ,as it do not remove form body easily /fast also get
accumulation in gut , kidney, and lungs.
PATHAGENIC ORGANISM
• Even if map is a venerable form of safety It
can inhibit microorganism but pathogen be
encourage to grow due to factors as :

Slow growing pathogens and


number increase due to
extended shelf life

Pathogens like l.monocytogenes ,aernomonas,


and yersinia enterocolitica

those are unaffected by map but beneficial


by growth at low temperature and
extended storage life….
Recent trends …

VERTICAL
FARMING
• Population in 2015- 7.3B and will rise to 9.7B
till 2050…
• It’s a challenge to food industry to fulfill the
food needs of population ,so advance steps
has to take …
• Thus some companies such as AGROFARM ,
Aerofarms (US), FarmedHere (US)ETC are
taking challenges
AGROFARMS
• Located in new york , new jersey.
• Are 20 to 30 level vertical farms.
• Which can grow cabbage, kale ….all type of greens …
• Company yield 1.7 ton per year in only 75000sq.ft
• Yield almost 130%than of regular field .
• Grows more than 250 kinds of leafy greens
• Use aeroponic technology , syetem use 95% less water
than regular field .by creating mist
• And spread in Vancouver , singapore , panama , U.K ,
and around the US
• In 2017,company raised to 50 millon dollar turnover
• The major players in this market include Aerofarms
(US), FarmedHere (US), Koninklijke Philips N.V. (the
Netherlands), Illumitex, Inc. (US), and Sky Greens
(Singapore).
• These players have adopted various strategies such as
new product developments, partnerships and
contracts, and business expansions to cater to the
needs of the vertical farming market.
• According to the new market research report, the
vertical farming market is expected to be valued at
USD 5.80 billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 24.8%
between 2016 and 2022.
• The growth of the market could be attributed to the
growing urbanization, rising demand for high quality
food with no use of pesticides and herbicides, and
independent farming technique with low impact of
climatic conditions.
QB
• Which lipid coating give Damage and weaken
the immune system?
• Which type of organism have no effect of
coating?
• Which type of coating do not remove even
after washing through water?
• Where does paraffin wax is obtain / derived
from ?
• food additive CMC have which E number ?
Think before you eat …