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Chapter 1

Atomic Structures
& Bonding
Learning Objectives:

• Describe the nature and


structure of an atom
• Describe ionic, covalent,
metallic, van der Waals and
mixed bonds and note the
differences between them
• Note what materials exhibit
each of the bonding types
Atomic Structure
Atomic number:
Equal to the orbital electrons:
number of n = principal
electrons or quantum number
protons 2 1
n=3
Ex: Iron
26 electron=26
protons
Nucleus, Adapted from Fig. 2.1,
Z + N = # protons + # Callister 6e.
neutrons
Atomic mass A ≈ Z + N
Atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity, the ratio of
the average mass of atoms of an element (from a given source)
to 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon.
Example: Iron 58.85 g/mol
Electron?
Avogadro’s Number = 6.023 x 1023
• Valence electrons – those in unfilled
shells
• Filled shells more stable
• Valence electrons are most available for
bonding and tend to control the
chemical properties

– example: C (atomic number = 6)

1s2 2s2 2p2


4d
4p N-shell n = 4

3d
4s

Energy 3p M-shell n = 3
3s

2p L-shell n = 2
2s

1s K-shell n = 1
inert gases
give up 1e-
give up 2e-

accept 2e-
accept 1e-
give up 3e-
H He
Li Be O F Ne
Na Mg S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Te I Xe
Cs Ba Po At Rn
Fr Ra

Electronegative elements:
Electropositive elements: Readily acquire electrons
Readily give up electrons to become - ions
to become + ions.
Electronegativity
Values: 0.7 to 4
Larger values tendency to acquire electron. Increasing shielding
decreasing electronegativity

Smaller electronegativity
Larger electronegativity
Atomic Bonding
Atomic Bonding

Primary Secondary Mixed

Involves e- Involves weak Involves more than


transfer/sharing and attraction between one type of primary
produces a strong atoms bond
joining of adjacent No e transfer/sharing
-

atoms
Ionic-covalent
van der Waals
Ionic
Metallic-covalent
Covalent
Metallic-ionic
Metallic
Ionic bonding
• result of e- transfer from one atom to
another
• Formed between highly electropositive
(metallic) elements and highly
electronegative (nonmetallic) elements
• Due to coulombic attraction
• Producing cations and anions
• Nondirectional - +ve species attract –
ve species in all direction  ions
stacked together in a solid
• Example??
Ionic bonding
Ionic bond – metal +
nonmetal
donates accepts
electrons electrons
 
Dissimilar electronegativities  

ex: MgO Mg 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 O 1s2 2s2 2p4


[Ne] 3s2 

Mg2+ 1s2 2s2 2p6 O2- 1s2 2s2 2p6


[Ne] [Ne]

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Electrical
conductivity poor;
the electrical
charge is
transferred by the
movement of
entire ion.
Because of their
size do not move
as easy as
electrons

Brittle???
Covalent bonding

• Cooperative sharing of valence electrons between two


adjacent atoms (atoms with small differences in
electronegativity and close to each other in periodic table)
• Highly directional (Example CH4- bond angle 109.5
O

• Poorelectrical andthermal conductivity,


• For electron to move and carry current covelent bond
must be broken , required high temperature or voltage
Covalent bonding
Metallic bonding
• Occurs in solid metals
• Involves e- sharing – valence e-
attracted to the nuclei of
neighboring atoms (delocalized e-)
 electron cloud
• Nondirectional – atoms are
packed together in a systematic
pattern or crystalline structure
• Al-give 3 electrons to form a sea
of electron
Metallic bonding

As electron are not fixed an any one


position , metals are good electrical
conductor. Under influence of applied
voltage, the valence electrons moves
SECONDARY BONDING
Arises from interaction between dipoles
• Fluctuating dipoles
asymmetric electron
clouds

+ - + -
secondary
bonding Adapted from Fig. 2.13,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

• Permanent dipoles-molecule induced

+ - secondary + -
-general case:
bonding Adapted from Fig. 2.14,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

H Cl secondary H Cl
-ex: liquid HCl
bonding

secon
-ex: polymer da r y bo secondary bonding
n di n g

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van der Waals bonding

• Somewhat similar to ionic bonding


but no e- transfer
• Attraction depends on asymmetrical
distribution of positive and negative
charges within each atom or
molecular unit being bonded –
dipole
• Permanent dipole – between
molecules (water molecules,
polyethylene)
Heating water breaks hydrogen bonding,
but much higher temperature needed to
break covalent bond joining hydrogen and
oxygen

Adapted from
Callister & Rethwisch 62.
Mixed bonding

• Ionic-covalent – semiconducting
compounds such as GaAs, ZnSe
• Metallic-covalent – occurs in
transition metals (Ti, Fe) high
Tmelt
• Metallic-ionic – occurs in
intermetallic compounds (NaZn13 ,
Al9Co3, Fe5Zn21 )
Bond energy