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# MEC3455

Solid Mechanics
Topic 2 – Airy Stress Functions
Dr Bernard Chen
Clayton Campus
Building 31/121

## Prof. Soh Ai Kah

Monash University Sunway Campus
Objectives
 Derivation of the biharmonic P.D.E and
the Airy stress function as a solution
(biharmonic function)
 Equations of equilibrium
 Compatibility equations
 Boundary conditions
 Example questions
Introduction
 Analogy: In fluid dynamics, the
Navier-Stokes equations
describe the motion of fluid at a
point in space in time.
 The Airy stress function, 𝜙(𝑥, 𝑦)
describes the state of stress
(normal and shear) at any point
in a structure under a
◦ Therefore, the Airy stress
function is dependent on
Mapping of this topic

## Equations of equilibrium, Compatibility equations

i.e. σ 𝐹 = 0 i.e. strain-displacement relationships

𝛻 4𝜙 = 0
where
𝜕4 𝜕4 𝜕4
𝛻4 = 4+2 2 2+ 4
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

## The Airy stress function, 𝜙(𝑥, 𝑦), is the solution

where
𝜕2𝜙 𝜕2𝜙 𝜕2𝜙
𝜎𝑥 = 𝜎𝑦 = 𝜏𝑥𝑦 =− 2 2
𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
Mapping of this topic
Biharmonic P.D.E. This is the equation that
𝛻4𝜙 = 0 we need to satisfy, for an
where Airy stress function to
𝜕 4 𝜕 4 𝜕 4
exist!
𝛻4 = 4 + 2 2 2 + 4
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

## The Airy stress function, 𝜙(𝑥, 𝑦), is the solution

where
𝜕2𝜙 𝜕2𝜙 𝜕2𝜙
𝜎𝑥 = 𝜎𝑦 = 𝜏𝑥𝑦 =− 2 2
𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

## The unique Airy stress function (solution) depends on

Equations of equilibrium
Consider a small element of dimensions dx, dy and with unity
thickness (thickness of 1)

 y
y  dy
y  xy
 xy  dy
y
 xy
 xy  dx
x
 x
dy x  dx
x x

x
 xy y
y
dx
Equations of equilibrium
Force balance equations for the element, with body force
included.
F x 0
  x    xy 
 x  dx dy.1   x .dy.1   xy 
 dy .dx.1   xy .dx.1  Xdx.dy.1  0
 x   y 

F y 0
  y    xy 
  y  dy dx.1   y .dx.1   xy  dx .dy.1   xy .dy.1  Ydx.dy.1  0
 y   x 
Eqn (1)

## where 𝑋 and 𝑌 are components of the body force, 𝐵

𝐵 = 𝑋2 + 𝑌2
Equations of equilibrium
Eqn (1) reduces to;

##  x  xy Eqn (2) are the

 X 0 Equations of Equilibrium
x y
for a 2-dimensional
problem (plane stress)
 y  xy
 Y  0
y x
Eqn (2)

## In most engineering problems, the body forces 𝑋 and 𝑌 are

either zero or obvious i.e. gravity
Compatibility equations
Assume that the previous element is deformed by displacement
𝑢, 𝑣 and 𝑤 in the 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 directions respectively.
For 2-D case, we shall ignore 𝑧.
Note:
u • normal movements (normal strain)
u dy
y are represented by 𝑢 and 𝑣
• rotational movements (shearing
𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑢
strains) are represented by and
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

v
v dx
x

## v • Normal movement due to

normal stress
• Rotational movement due
to shear stress distortion
u
Compatibility equations
Using the engineering definitions of strain;

u
Eqn (3a) x 
x
Normal strains
v
Eqn (3b) y 
y
u v
Eqn (3c)  xy   Shear strain
y x

## Note that the three strain components, 𝜀𝑥 , 𝜀𝑦 and 𝛾𝑥𝑦 are

now defined by two deformations 𝑢 and 𝑣.
Compatibility equations
Differentiate the Eqn (3a) and Eqn 3(b) twice wrt to 𝑦
and 𝑥 respectively, and Eqn 3(c) once wrt to 𝑥 and 𝑦, we
obtain

  x   y   xy
2 2 2

 2  Eqn (4)
y 2
x xy
This is the differential Equation of Compatibility which
must be satisfied to ensure that the displacements 𝑢 and
𝑣 are related to the strains in eqn (3a – 3c)
How do we relate the Equation of
Equilibrium to the Equation of Compatibility?
i.e. stress to strain?
Hooke’s Law!
 Since this is a 2D problem (plane), we will use the 2D
Hooke’s Law.
 Also, with Hooke’s Law, we are assuming that the
material is in its elastic region (no plastic deformation).

 x   x   y 
1
E  xy21   
 xy    xy
 y   y   x 
1 G E
E
Eqn (5)
How do we relate the Equation of
Equilibrium to the Equation of Compatibility?
i.e. stress to strain?
Substituting Hooke’s law (Eqn (5)) into the Equation of
Compatibility, Eqn (4) gives
2 2  2 xy
 x   y   2  y   x   21    Eqn (6)
y 2
x xy

## Notice that by doing this, we have eliminated the three strain

components, 𝜀𝑥 , 𝜀𝑦 and 𝛾𝑥𝑦 .

## While differentiate the Equations of Equilibrium (Eqn (2a)) wrt

to 𝑥 and (Eqn (2b)) wrt 𝑦 and then adding the two results gives
 2 xy 2 x   y
2

2  2  Eqn (7)
xy x y 2
How do we relate the Equation of
Equilibrium to the Equation of Compatibility?
i.e. stress to strain?
By substituting Eqn (7) into Eqn (6) (both equations with
stress terms only), this gives us

 2  
 2  2  x   y   0
2
Eqn (8)
 x y 
• Eqn (8) is a combination of equilibrium and
compatibility
• 1 equation, 2 unknowns
• Therefore, to solve this, the Airy stress function, 𝜙
(named after G.B. Airy, 1862) is introduced
How do we relate the Equation of
Equilibrium to the Equation of Compatibility?
The stresses can be written in terms of the Airy stress
function as:
 2  2
2
x  2 y  2  xy   Eqn (9)
y x xy
Thus, substituting Eqn (9) back into Eqn (8) results in Eqn (10),
(with one parameter, 𝜙 - the Airy stress function).

 4  4  4
2 2 2  4 0 Eqn (10)
x 4
x y y

 4  0
How do we relate the Equation of
Equilibrium to the Equation of Compatibility?
4
 4 4
2 2 2  4 0 Eqn (10)
x 4
x y y
 4  0
This is the Biharmonic Partial Differential Equation.
Only stress functions, 𝜙(𝑥, 𝑦) which satisfy this equation (Eqn
(10)) meet both equilibrium and compatibility requirements.

## You will see that any 𝜙 in terms of polynomial function in (𝑥, 𝑦)

less than power of 4 will satisfy Eqn (10)
– BUT is it the appropriate solution?
Solution must satisfy boundary conditions
How do we relate the Equation of Equilibrium
to the Equation of Compatibility?
The Airy stress function, 𝜙(𝑥, 𝑦) determines the stress state.
Often we also want to determine how the structure deforms
Therefore, we can use Hooke’s law to determine the
deformation of the structure from the stress.
𝑢 = displacement in 𝑥; 𝑣 = displacement in 𝑦;
 u 1
 x    x   y 
 x E
 v 1

 y    y   x 
 y E
 u v  xy
 xy   
 y x G
Example 1
Example 2
For the uniformly loaded cantilever beam shown below, the compatible
stress field was found to be
w w
σx  (5x 2  2c 2 )y  y3
10I z 3I z
w
τ xy  x(c 2  y 2 )
2I z
w
σy   (2c 3  3c 2 y  y 3 )
6I z

## MEC3455-Airy Stress Function 19

EXAMPLE 3
Consider a thin cantilever loaded as shown in the below figure. Assume
that the bending stress is expressed by
Mzy P
x    x2y
I 2I

## and z = xz = yz = 0. Determine the stress components y and xy as

functions of x and y.