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Sistem

Manusia-Mesin
Sistem Manusia-Mesin menurut
beberapa pakar Ergonomi:

SRITOMO WIGNJOSOEBROTO
1. Sistem Manusia-Mesin Hubugan Manual
2. Sistem Manusia Mesin Mekanistik/Semi
Otomatik
3. Sistem Manusia-Mesin Hubungan Otomatis

EKO NURMIANTO “Pemahaman simbol-simbol”


Simulated man-machine
systems as computer-aided
information transfer and
self-learning tools
Human-centred design of
information systems
Designing interactive
systems based on cognitive
theories of human
information processing
Personal hypermedia systems
Figure1: Tools, machines, and symbiotic systems
Machine Interfaces
TOOLS After the industrial revolution, various powered
First of all, we, human machines were developed and the concept of
automatic control was introduced. From an
beings, can be well
informatics point of view, automatic machines can be
characterized as animals discriminated from tools in that the former have
that can exibly use a variety internal states which are modied according to their
of tools: hammers, cutters, own dynamics. To get along with automatic
bows, and so on. It is not too machines, therefore, we need to have some ways of
much to say that our monitoring their states and controlling their state
civilization owes heavily to transitions. We may call such monitoring and
tools. controlling methods Machine Interfaces.
Among others, since computers can be programmed
Our exibility in using tools
to have an innumerably large size of di
may come from our erent states and exhibit unpredictably complex state
capability of assimilating transitions, it became crucial to develop easy-
tools into our physical understandable computer interfaces. Thus, starting
bodies. That is, human from Character User Interface, we now enjoy
beings have enough Graphical User Interface. To further improve
sophisticated perception computer interfaces, moreover, Multi-Modal User
and motor systems to realize Interface and Perceptual User Interface are being
studied: the former employs sound and tactile
such assimilation and
interfaces as well as visual interface and the latter
consequently, tools are understands human gestures and speech to free us
regarded as extended bodies from keyboards and mouses. It is our short-term
augmenting our physical research goal to develop these advanced human-
capabilities. computer interfaces.
Man-Machine Symbiotic Systems
Man-machine symbiotic systems we are proposing go a step further beyond the
machine interfaces. That is, the interaction model employed in any machine
interfaces is designed based on Order-and-Response Model or Master-and-Slave
Model, in which a human user is regarded as an omnipotent master and a computer
as an obedient server. In the manmachine symbiotic systems, on the other hand, a
human and a machine are considered to be on equal terms and interact with each
other as partners. Of course, we do not claim that we should give machines human
rights, but what we want to realize is such machines that work for humans even if
they are not explicitly ordered.
(I) Knowing Human Beings:
analyzing characteristics of natural human beings from viewpoints of
neurophysiology and psychology.
(II-1) Observing Human Activities:
sensing and understanding human activities using vision, auditory, and tactile
sensors.
(II-2) Attracting Human:
realizing attractive multimedia presentation methods, which elicit human
reactions.
(III) Interacting with Human:
developing real-time interaction protocols.
(IV) Living with Human:
developing robots that can live together with human in every day life
environments.
Analisa Kerja (Work Analysis)
Tingkatan Analisa

Untuk tingkatan
yang berbeda
Sistem Proses Stasiun Gerakan
membutuhkan
produksi Produksi
industri kerja mikro model analisa
yang berbeda
pula
Manusia sebagai komponen dalam
sistem manusia mesin

“Yang dimaksud dengan sistem manusia-


mesin (SMM) adalah kombinasi antara
satu atau beberapa manusia dengan
satu atau beberapa mesin dimana salah
satu dengan yang lainnya akan saling
berinteraksi untuk menghasilkan
keluaran-keluaran berdasarkan
masukan-masukan yang diperoleh”
1. Sistem Manusia-Mesin Hubungan
Manual (Manual Man-Machine System)
SMM hubungan manual

 Dalam sistem ini input akan langsung


ditransformasikan oleh manusia menjadi output.
 Manusia berfungsi sebagai sumber tenaga.
 Manusia masih memegang kendali penuh
dalam melaksanakan aktivitasnya.
 Penggunaan alat hanya sekedar menambah
kemampuan kerja.
Bagan Input-Output SMM Hub Manual

Information storage

Sensing Action
Input Output

Processing

Feed - Back
2. Sistem Manusia-Mesin
mekanistik/semi-otomatik
 Adanya mekanisme khusus yang
mengolah input atau informasi dari luar
sebelum masuk ke sistem.
 Mesin melaksanakan fungsi
power/tenaga, manusia
memberikan kontrol.
Bagan Input-Output SMM
mekanistik/semi-otomatik
D C
IS O
P N
L Information storage T
A R
Y Sensing Action O
Input L Process

Processing

Output

Feed - Back
3. Sistem manusia mesin
hubungan otomatik
 Mesin sebagai penerima ransangan dari
luar (sensing) sekaligus pengendali
aktivitas.
 Fungsi operator hanya memonitor dan
menjaga agar supaya mesin tetap
bekerja dengan baik, memasukan data
dan/atau mengganti program.
Bagan Input-Output SMM hubungan
otomatik

Information storage
Input Sensing Action Process
Processing

D C
I O Output
S N
P Human (monitor) T
L R
A O
Y L

Feed - Back
Dasar penyelidikan terhadap
Sistem Manusia-Mesin
 Manusia dan mesin sama-sama memiliki
kekurangan.
 Ada pekerjaan yang lebih baik di kerjakan
oleh manusia dan sebaliknya ada beberapa
pekerjaan yang sebaiknya dilakukan oleh
mesin.
Perbandingan antara manusia dan
mesin ditinjau dari beberapa aspek
MASALAH MANUSIA MESIN

 Kecepatan Lambat. Cepat.


 Tenaga/power Kecil, terbatas dan Dapat diatur dengan
berubah-ubah. baik, bisa besar dan
tetap.
 Keseragaman Tidak dapat Seragam/standar,
diandalkan, perlu cocok utk pekerjaan
dimonitor dgn rutin dan massal.
mesin.
MASALAH MANUSIA MESIN

Ingatan (memory) Bisa mengingat segala Baik utk menyimpan


hal, dgn pendekatan dr dan memproduksi
segala sudut, baik untuk sesuatu yg telah
menentukan dasar-dasar ditentukan.
pikiran maupun strategi.
Induktif baik.
Berpikir Lambat dan sangat Deduktif baik.
mungkin melakukan
kesalahan, tapi
memiliki kemampuan
koreksi.
Kalkulasi Degradasi, turun secara Cepat dan tepat,
perlahan. tetapi tidak memiliki
kemampuan koreksi.
MASALAH MANUSIA MESIN

Reaksi terhadap Cepat Kerusakan terjadi


yang berlebihan tiba-tiba.
Kepintaran Dapat menyesuaikan Tidak ada, hanya
sesuatu yg terduga, bisa memutuskan
menganalisa, ya/tidak.
meramalkan.

Dengan memahami kemampuan manusia dan


mesin tersebut di atas, diharapkan pembuatan
interface/hubungan sistem manusia-mesin akan
bisa saling melengkapi satu sama lain
ANY QUESTIONS???