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Alternators

• Are the primary source of all


electrical energy

• Commonly used to convert


the mechanical power output
of steam turbines, gas
turbines, reciprocating
engines, hydro turbines into
electrical power for the grid

• Are known as synchronous


machines because they
operate at synchronous speed
(speed of rotor always
matches supply frequency)
Alternator Overview

• The alternator contains:

• A rotating field winding called


the rotor.

• A stationary induction winding


called the stator.

• An excitation system for the


field winding.

• A control device called the


voltage regulator.

• Two internal fans to promote air


circulation.
Types of Alternators

Stationary Field Revolving Field


 Field winding on stator  Stationary armature with 3-
phase winding on stator
 3 phase Armature winding on rotor

 3-phases directly connected


 Terminals are connected to load through
3 slip rings & 3 brushes
to load
 Used for low power ratings.  Rotating magnetic field
created by DC field winding
on rotor, powered by slip-
rings / brushes
Advantages of Stationary Armature

 Better insulation to the armature


conductors.

 Number of slip rings are reduced

 Improved ventilation arrangement

 Rotor construction becomes


simpler which makes the machine
to attain higher speeds.
Stator Windings

• The laminated stator core is


Stator Lead Ends Three Windings cut into slots on its inner
periphery.

• The stator is made with three


sets of windings.

• Each winding is displaced by


an angle of 120 degrees..

• Stator leads are brought out


and connected to the load

Laminated Iron Neutral Junction in the Wye design can


Frame be identified by the 6 strands of wire
Rotor

Two types of rotors


are
used in alternators

(i) Salient-pole rotor

(ii) smooth-cylindrical
type rotor
Salient –Pole Rotors

 Used for low speed


applications and are called
hydro generators

 The poles are salient


(projecting) and are laminated

 Field winding is fed from a low


voltage dc supply

 Flux distribution is not uniform


Smooth –Cylinderical Type Rotor

 Used for high-speed applications


(steam/ gas turbines) and are called
turbo alternators

 The laminated rotor core is cut into


slots on its outer periphery to
accommodate the field coils

 Field winding is connected to low


voltage dc supply through 2 slip rings

 High speed of rotation produces strong


centrifugal forces, which impose upper
limit on the rotor diameter.
Field Excitation and Exciters

 DC field excitation is an important part of the overall design of a


synchronous generator

 For both stationary and revolving fields, DC supply is normally


produced by DC generator mounted on same shaft as rotor.

 Permanent magnets can also produce DC field – used increasingly


in smaller machines as magnets get cheaper

 Main and pilot exciters are used in common

 Brushless excitation systems employ power electronics(rectifiers)


to avoid brushes / slip ring assemblies.
Synchronous Generator
cross section view of a 500MW synchronous generator and the
excitation systems
Principle of Operation

• As the rotor assembly rotates


within the stator winding.

• The alternating magnetic field


from the spinning rotor induces
an alternating voltage into the
stator winding.

• Both the strength of the


magnetic field and the speed of
the rotor affect the amount of
voltage induced into the stator.
Synchronous Generator –Stator
Stator of a 3-phase, 500 MVA, 0.95 p.f, 15 kV, 60Hz, 200r/min
generator
Synchronous Generator –Rotor
36 pole rotor is being lowered in to the stator as shown below.
2400v dc exciting current is supplied by a 330V electronic rectifier
Synchronous Generator –Rotor
Rotor with its 4 pole dc winding. The dc exciting current of
11.2kA is supplied by a 600V dc brushless exciter bolted to the
end of the main shaft.
Short pitch winding & Pitch Factor/Chording
Factor
Short pitched coils are deliberately used because of the following
advantages:
• They save copper of end connections
• They improve the waveform of the generated e.m.f

• Reduces Eddy current & hysteresis losses

But the total voltage around the coil


Vector sumisofsome what reduced,
the induced e.m.fs. So
per coil
Pitch Factor/Chording Factor, kc =
Arithmetic sum of the induced e.m.fs. per coil

= cos(α/2), Where α is known


as chording angle.
Distribution or Breadth Factor/ Spread
Factor
 Comes into picture when the coils in each phase are distributed
instead of concentrated in one slot

 e.m.fs. induced in coil sides of a polar group differ by an angle


equal to the angular displacement of the slots

Vector sum of coil e.m.fs.


 Distribution factor ,kd Arithmetic
= sum of coil e.m.fs.
 mβ 
Sin 
 2 
kd =
β 
m sin  
2
Number of Poles

The number of poles on a synchronous generator depends upon the speed of rotation and desired frequency

Where f = frequency of the induced voltage (Hz)


p = number of poles on the rotor
n = speed of the rotor (rpm)
Induced E.M.F

R.M.S value of e.m.f per phase = 4.44fØT Volt

Actually available voltage/phase = 4.44kdkcfØT Volt

Where,

f = frequency of the induced voltage (Hz)


p = number of poles on the rotor
n = speed of the rotor (rpm)
Ø = flux/pole in webers
T = No. of turns /coils per phase (Z=2T)
kd = distribution factor
kc = pitch factor
Alternator on load

Terminal voltage of the alternator varies with the load due to the
following reasons:

 Voltage drop due to armature resistane Ra

 Voltage drop due to armature leakage reactance XL

 Voltage drop due to armature reaction


A armature leakage reactance XL

 When current flows through the


armature conductors , fluxes are
set up which do not cross the air
gap, but take different paths. Such
fluxes are known as leakage flux

 Leakage flux depends on current


and phase angle with terminal
voltage & sets up reactance e.m.f

 Hence armature winding is


assumed to posses leakage
reactance XL E = V + I ( Ra + jX L )
Armature Reaction
• Effect of armature flux on the
main field flux

• Power factor of the load has a


considerable effect on the
armature reaction

• The drop in voltage due to


armature reaction is accounted
by means of a fictitious reactance
Xa in the armature winding

• Synchronous reactance Xs = XL +
Xa

• Synchronous impedance Zs =Ra+j


Xs
Armature Reaction
• Unity P.F Main Flux Armature Flux

Armature flux is cross magnetizing,


armature reaction is distortional
Unity P.F
• Z.P.F Lagging
Armature reaction is wholly
demagnetizing, lesser induced e.m.f

Zero P.F
• Z.P.F Leading Lagging
Armature Reaction is wholly
magnetizing, greater induced e.m.f

• 0.7 P.F Lag Zero P.F


For intermediate p.f , the effect is Leading
partly distortional & partly
demagnetizing

0.7 P.F
Lag
Voltage Regulation
• It is defined as the change in
terminal voltage, expresses as
percentage of the rated voltage ,
when the load at a given power
factor is removed, with speed and
field current remaining
unchanged. Therefore,

Voltage Re gulation =
( E0 − V ) ×100
V

• Lagging power factor load


E0 always increases & voltage
regulation positive
• Leading power factor load
E0 decreases & voltage regulation
negative
Iq
O Eo
ψ δ
Ø

V
IqXq
I qR q
Id
Ia IdXd
Armature Reaction

Main Flux Armature


Flux

a) Unity
P.F

b)
Zero
P.F
Lagging

c)
Zero
P.F
Leading

d)

0.7 P.F
Lag
Synchronous Reactance
Parallel Operation of Alternators
Synchronous Reactance
Voltage Regulation

P.F. Leading

P.F.
Terminal Volts

Unity
P.
F.
L ag
g in
g

Load Current
Temp

N S

IZ
S
E0

a
IX
Eb E
0 IX

`
0

L
L

IX
V IR V IRa

s
Ø

IX
Ø a

I
I