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 DDD network,

 private- line service,

 the telephone circuit,
 data modems: synchronous modems,
asynchronous modems,
 modem synchronization

 The largest communication network on this
earth is the global Public Switched Telephone
Network (PSTN).
 The telephone network had its beginnings in
the late 1876s.
 The entire network, which is referred to as
plain old telephone set (POTS) was originally
designed to carry analog voice signals, the
advent of computers and data communication
in the 1980s, has lead to it being increasingly
used to also carry computer data traffic.
 Modern telecommunication networks are
designed to carry information in a variety of
forms (e.g., voice, data, video and fax).
Telecommunication and data communication
are fast converging.
 The Public Telephone Network includes
mainly two types of subscribers:
 Private
 Public

 Private: All those customers who lease

transmission media, equipments and services
from the telephone companies on permanent
basis have known as private subscribers or
private line circuit or dedicated circuits.
 The leased circuits are specifically designed
and configured for their use, for example,
banks do not like to share their
communication network with other users.
Therefore, they lease facilities and
equipments from public telephone companies
and operate a private telephone or network
within the public telephone network.

 Public telephone companies also referred as

service providers. They provide services and
lease equipments to other private companies,
government agencies and organizations.
 Public: Subscribers to the public sector of the
telephone network share facilities and
equipments that are available to all the public
subscribers to the network.
 Anyone with the telephone number is a
subscriber to the public sector of the public
telephone network.
 All the subscribers to public network are
interconnected temporarily through the
 So they are also known as public switched
telephone network (PSTN) or dial-up network.
 PSTN refers to the combination of
transmission lines and switches (may be
central offices) which forms a system of
electrical routes through the network.

 The most familiar component of a telephone
network is the telephone set provided for
each user. It is a relatively simple device
which can exchange control signals with the
network to help establish and release calls,
and to send and receive a user’s speech
 Users are referred to as subscribers, because
they subscribe to a service provided by the
telephone company.

 Typically, many subscribers are attached to
the same network, and each subscriber can
contact every other subscriber.
 The system employs switches to facilitate
connections between subscribers.
 The arrangement of switches and subscribers
and the interconnections between them
determines the structure of the network.
 Figure-1 shows the major components of the
telephone network. They are as follows:
 Local Loops
 Trunks
 Switching offices (end offices, tandem offices
and regional offices)
 The circuit which connects each subscriber
(via a pair of wires) to the switch is called a
subscriber loop or local loop.
 A twisted pair cable which connects the
subscriber telephone set to the nearest end
office (may be referred as local central office).
 The twisted pair has its limited bandwidth but
enough for voice transmission which needs
only 4 kHz.
 Normally the range of local loop is from 1 to
10 km.
 A trunk circuit is similar to a local loop
except trunk circuits are used to interconnect
two telephone offices.
 The two exchanges are connected using a set
of interexchange lines called trunk lines.
 The main difference between a local loop and
a trunk is that a local loop is permanently
associated with a particular station, whereas a
trunk is a common usage.
 Trunk lines are transmission media used to
connects the interoffice.
 The transmission media used for trunk lines
may be twisted copper wire or optical fibers.
 A trunk circuit could be a wireless
communication channel (satellite links).
Because it has to handles large numbers of
connections using multiplexing, it requires
higher bandwidth.
 Switching offices or exchange is a central
location where subscribers are
interconnected, permanently or temporarily
 Switching offices are connected with several
local loops or trunk lines and provide a
connection between different subscribers.
 Switching machine are located in exchange,
switching machines are programmable
matrices that provide temporary signal paths
between two subscribers.
 This is done to avoid the having permanent
physical connection between any two
 Data modems are connected through local
loops to switching machines located in
 A central exchange is also known as central
telephone exchange, central office or simply
central. The purpose of a telephone exchange
is to make a path for a call to be completed
between two subscribers. While processing a
call, a switch should provide three main
 i. First function is to identify the subscribers.
 ii. Establish a communications path
 ii. Monitor the calling process
 Private telephone networks coexist with the
public telephone network to address the
specific telecommunication needs of
independent organizations.
 Private telephone networks come in different
configurations and sizes, with varying
degrees of connectivity or integration with
public telephone networks and data
networks. Most private networks revolve
around a private exchange, which we will look
at first.
 There are numbers of private telephone
networks applications. Few of them are as
discussed below:

1. Private Branch Exchange
2. Corporate Networks
3. Intelligent Networks
 A Private Branch Exchange (PBX); also called
a Private Automatic Branch Exchange, or
PABX, is a small to medium scale telephone
switch typically used in office environments.
One can think of a PBX as a local exchange,
with the difference that it is owned and
operated by a private organization other than
a phone company.
 It is connected to a central office exchange
via trunk lines and provides a number of local
lines or extensions (ranging from tens to
thousands) for connecting office telephones.
 All calls between the extensions are locally
handled by the PBX. Outside calls are routed
by the PBX as normal public network calls via
the trunk lines.
 Many large corporations operate their own
distributed private telephone network, which
consists of a number of PBX systems at
different sites, interconnected through leased
trunk lines.
 Each user is provided with a network-wide
number which can be used to contact them,
independent of their geographic location.
 The network also provides an interface to the
public network for contacting people outside
the corporation.
 By concentrating traffic on leased trunk lines,
significant reductions in running costs can be
 CCITT’s Signaling System Number 7 (SS7)
opens the scope for user-defined procedures
for the way calls are handled. This leads to
the concept of Intelligent Networks (IN).

 Network access is facilitated through a set of
Service Switching Points (SSPs). The signaling
link between the switches is controlled
through a set of Signaling Transfer Points
 A Service Control Point (SCP) is in charge of
dictating how calls should be handled and
routed. For its operation, the SCP uses a
service database which contains service
profile definitions provided by the customer.
 A modem is a modulator/demodulator.
 It converts digital signals from a computer to
analog signals so they can be sent over a
telephone line. The receiving computer will
normally have a modem which will convert
the analog signals back to digital signals.
 A modem may be an internal modem which is
a card inside your computer or it may be
external with a connection to a serial RS-232
line on your computer.

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 The telephone jack that will plug into the
modem is called an RJ-11 jack. Speed of the
modem is measured in bits per second (bps).
 There are a set of V-series standards
developed by the International
Telecommunications Union which indicate the
speed of the modem.
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 Digital Connection
 The connection between the modem and
terminal/computer is a digital connection. A
basic connection consists of a Transmit Data
(TXD) line, a Receive Data (RXD) line and many
hardware hand-shaking control lines.

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 The control lines determine:
 whose turn it is to talk (modem or terminal),
if the terminal/computer is turned on, if the
modem is turned on, if there is a
connection to another modem, etc.
 Analog Connection
 The connection between the modem and outside
world (phone line) is an analog connection. The
Voice Channel has a bandwidth of 0-4 kHz but only
300 - 3400 Hz is usable for data
 The modem converts the digital information into
tones (frequencies) for transmitting through the
phone lines. All of the tones are restricted to the
narrow 300-3400 Hz Voice Band.

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 There are 2 basic physical types of modems:
 Internal
 External modems.

 External modems sit next to the computer and
connect to the serial port using a straight
through serial cable.

 .

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 Internal modems are a plug-in circuit board
that sits inside the computer. It incorporates
the serial port on-board. They are less
expensive than external modems because
they do not require a case, power supply and
serial cable. They appear to the
communication programs as if they were an
external modem for all intensive purposes.

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There are many types of modems; the most
common are as follows:
1. Optical Modems
Uses optical fibre cable instead of wire. The
modem converts the digital signal to pulses of
light to be transmitted over optical lines. (more
commonly called a media adapter or transceiver)
2. Short Haul Modems
Modems used to transmit over 20 miles or less.
Modems we use at home or to connect
computers together between different offices in
the same building.

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 Acoustic Modem
A modem that coupled to the telephone
handset with what looked like suction cups
that contained a speaker and microphone.
Used for connecting to hotel phones for
traveling salespeople.
 Smart Modem
Modem with a CPU (microprocessor) on board
that uses the Hayes AT command set. This
allows auto-answer & dial capability rather
than manually dialing & answering.
 Digital Modems
Converts the RS-232 digital signals to digital
signals more suitable for transmission. (also
called a media adapter or transceiver).
 V.32 Modem milestone modem that used a
2400 Baud modem with 4 bit encoding. This
results in a 9600 bps (bits per second)
transfer rate.

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 There are some modem data compression
standards which enable the transmission to
operate at a higher speed.
 Due to data compression used on modems in
recent years baud rates and bps when
referring to modem speed are no longer the
 Now, more than one bit can be sent with each
baud. In the past, only one bit could be sent

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1. V.22bis - 2400bps
2. V.32 - 9600bps
3. V.32bis -14,400bps
4. V.32terbo - 19,200bps
5. V. Fast Class (V.FC) - 28,800bps
6. V.34 - 28,800bps
7. V.42 - 57,600bps

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1. Speed
The speed at which the modem can send
data in bps (bits per second). Typically
modem speeds are: 300, 600, 1200, 2400,
4800, 9600, 14.4k, 19.2k, 28.8k, 33.6k and
56k bps. (Where small k = kilo = 1000 and
capital K = 1024.)
2. Auto Dial /Redial
Smart Modems can dial the phone number
and & auto redial if a busy signal is received.
3. Auto Answer
Most modems can automatically answer the
phone when an incoming call comes in. They
have Ring Detect capability.
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 Self-Testing
New modems have self-testing features. They
can test the digital connection to the terminal
/computer and the analog connection to a
remote modem. They can also check the
modem's internal electronics.
 Voice over Data
Voice over Data modems allow a voice
conversation to take place while data is being
transmitted. This requires both the source
and destination modems to have this feature.

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 Synchronous or Asynchronous Transmission
Newer modems allow a choice of
synchronous or asynchronous transmission of
 Normally, modem transmission is
asynchronous. We send individual characters
with just start and stop bits.
 Synchronous transmission or packet
transmission is used in specific applications.

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