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Chapter 4
 A transmission process which formal & informal knowledge or skill is
transmitted in either different or same generation.

 Education institution is a social structure whose role is to transmit knowledge

& skills, specifically schooling is a process of T&L in a formal way that takes
place in a classroom. Therefore, in this context socialization is a process which
a person learns about role, status & value that one should have in a society.

 Socialization is a constant learning. It starts from a transmission of customs

& values in a family and a culture of society to children. When the children grow
up, they will learn more based on their own interactions with other people or
any social agent.

 Socialization can change an individual’s behaviour to adapt into the current

society. The process will never stop and it will be constantly continued during
the whole life. This function as an important factor to continue the existence of
a society

What is Socialization?
 The concept is widely used in other disciplines such as psychology
and anthropology.

 In general, it is said that socialism theories focus on new things

such as observing cognitive development (e.g. Piaget), obtaining
moral and personal identity through family relationship (e.g.
friends), emphasizing moral category & value (e.g. Durkheim),
obtaining self concept & social identity (e.g. Mead) &
development of social skills which play a vital role in making
interaction successfully especially in linguistics communication
(such Bernstein).

 According to Lacey (1997), each theory has a different

explanation style about socialization. Conflict perspective said
that conflict between groups and inside groups will create many
situations indirectly.

Concept of Socialization
 Musgrave (1972) often discusses about socialization in structural
perspective and interpersonal. According to what he calls as a
frame of socialization’s theory:

(i) observe and explain the way of how a child adjust itself
through social structure which it has to learn a variety of
behaviour’s dimension to become an adult,

(ii) through interpersonal stage which it can be divided into two,

(a) through consensus features and values that are agreeable,
(b) whenever there is a conflict, force is needed to ensure proper
behaviour is achievable.

Concept of Socialization

1. Starting Socialism (Primer): It is the process which people learn
attitudes, values and actions appropriate to individuals as members
of a particular culture.

2. Secondary Socialization: It refers to process of learning on what is

appropriate behaviour as a member of a smaller group within the
larger society.

3. Developmental Socialization: It is the process of learning behaviour

in a social institution or developing social skills.

4. Anticipatory Socialization: It refers to the mental rehearsals,

concrete plans, and subtle changes in values and perceptions that
a significant change in social roles about to occur.

5. Re-socialization: It refers to the process of discarding former

behaviour patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in
one’s life. This occurs throughout the human life cycle (Schaefer &
Lamn, 1992)

Types of Socialization
1. Family Determines one attitude towards
religion & career, introduces intimate relationship &
group living, provides social status. As a
fundamental values & learning about relationships

6. Religion It remains 2. School Socializing young

a vital force for humans people in particular skills & values in
everywhere society. Official function (teach
children technical & intellectual skills),
“hidden curriculum” (impersonal,
bureaucratic organization)

5. Workplace Develops 3. Peer Group Among peers,

shared cultures, after work children experience egalitarian
socialization, rules & order relationships, make friends of their
own choosing & learn about
adult’s socialization

4. Mass Media It is a crucial

agent; the most influential is TV. New
research shows that TV also invites
interaction & exploration of cultural

Agents of Socialization
To study how
To help
education can be
educators To tolerate in
used to help
understand other interaction
individuals &

For educators to
To study Student’s
have a balance
similarities & perception
of knowledge
differences in towards future &
about human
education social mobility

To strengthen To enable educators to

To give a clear educator’s have the skills of
interpreting research
picture to all concept & skill outcomes, statitsic
parties dealing with data & start a
students research

Significance of Socialization in
Deal & Peterson (1993): “An inner reality”

Robbins and Alvy (1995): “This inner reality reflects

what organizational members care about, what they are
willing to spend time doing, what and how they
celebrate, and what they talk about”.

Gary Philips (1993): “The beliefs, attitudes and

behaviours that characterize a school in term of how
people treat and feel about each other, the extent to
which people feel included and appreciated, rituals and
traditions reflecting collaboration and collegiality”.

What is School Culture?

 School culture is NOT about religion, race, socio-economic
status or the size of the school.

 Culture includes a composite of the values, rituals and

beliefs shared and demonstrated by participants within the

 Culture influences everything that happens in a school.

 People in a healthy organization must have agreement on

how do things and what is worth doing.

School Culture
 Wagner (2000): “Shared experience both in school and out
of school (traditions and celebrations), a sense of
community, of family and team”.

 Staff stability & common goals permeate the school. Time

is set aside for school-wide recognition of all school

 Common agreement on curricular and instructional

components as well as order & discipline are established
through consensus.

 Open & honest communication is encouraged & there is

abundance of humor and trust. Tangible support from
leadership at the school & district levels is also present.

School Culture
Three principal activities will raise standardized test scores, make them
more accountable.
How it
• Making taught? Test-taking
decision skills
• Making
about the decision about • Placing
curriculum instructional considerable
What should methodology time & attention
be taught? on test taking

HOWEVER, often shortfall to attain expected results: overworked, student

achievement, staff satisfaction, parent engagement, community support.

The culture of learning community is toxic no matter what “improvement

initiative” is implemented

Significance of School Culture

 When there is no “one size fits all” culture
for classrooms, schools, or school
districts, there are 3 markers to identify
and measure as well as strengthen the

1. Professional Collaboration
2. Affiliation and Collegiality
3. Self-Determination & Efficacy

Significance of School Culture

1. Collegiality – they have similar challenges,

2. Experimentation

3. High Expectation

4. Trust & Confidence

5. Tangible Support

6. Reaching Out to the Knowledge Base

11 Norms of School Culture

7. Appreciation & Recognition

8. Caring, Celebration & Humor

9. Involvement in Decision Making

10. Traditions

11. Honest, Open Communication

11 Norms of School Culture

1. Collegiality 2. Experimentation

They have similar challenges &

needs, & different talents and Teaching is an intellectually
knowledge exciting activity. Teachers are
encouraged to experiment with
They can learn from each other, new ideas & techniques to
evaluate & develop curriculum & improve schools and teachers.
plan special projects together
They can drop experiments that
They develop cooperative learning do not work and be rewarded for
and thinking skills having tried. They always look
for more effective ways of

3. High Expectation

Accountable for high performance through regular 4. Trust & Confidence

evaluations Administrators & parents trust
They are specifically expected to practise collegiality teachers’ professional
& to experiment with new ideas. They are rewarded & judgment & commitment to
this continued professional development is highly improvement.
While teachers often feel under pressure to excel,
they thrive on being part of a dynamic organization

11 Norms of School Culture

5. Tangible Support
6. Reaching Out to the Knowledge
When teachers need help to
improve their instruction,
people extend themselves to There are generic knowledge bases
these teachers with both time & about teaching skills and how
students learn, teaching methods in a
resources. particular area, about young people’s
People believe the professional cognitive & affective development,
knowledge & skills of teachers about each of academic discipline.
are so important to good
2 features – curious nature, the
schooling – developing human reality & usefulness of these
resources. knowledge bases.

8. Caring, Celebration &

7. Appreciation & Recognition Humour
Good teaching is honoured in any school and Teacher’s day, share some
community. good humours, less formal
ways, and make as one of
Teacher recognition as a regular feature of school the prominent school
committee meetings, PTA luncheons, short notes culture.

11 Norms of School Culture

9. Involvement in Decision

Teachers are included in certain

meaningful decision-making 10. Traditions
processes in a school, especially
when they directly affect the There are events coming up that
teachers or their students. That students & teachers alike see as
does not mean they are refreshing or challenging
consulted on all policies or
decisions, but there are
mechanism open for them to
raise issue

11. Honest, Open Communication

Teachers take responsibility for sending own

messages. They can speak to their colleagues
and administrators directly and tactfully without
fear of fear losing their esteem or damaging their

11 Norms of School Culture

Understanding the
Students are
correct type of Accommodating
surrounding with
culture – accepted effective T&L
positive & good
by community & process
teachers to mould

achievement as the
Improving students’
benchmark – a
achievement & self
positive outcome of
the good school

The Significance of School Culture Towards

 The school culture plays an important role in establishing a
good society as it is a part of the society itself.

 Teachers shape the culture of their students & schools.

 There are many intoxicating elements that may pollute the

good school culture.

 Not only teachers, but all the community should involve in

shaping the culture with deep thoughts.

 To build a concrete and good society, it is based on the

school culture first.

Thank You