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Lecture VIII- Karnika Seth, Partner, Seth Associates,
Concept of privacy
Right to privacy in India
International initiatives –Right to privacy
Privacy rights in U.K ,U.S
Data protection Rights
Privacy issues and the internet
National Security concerns
Threats to privacy
Protecting the right to privacy
Right to Privacy-origin-ancient athens-Right to
private property
U.K –Albert v Strange, Kaye v robertson-indicated
the need to have privacy rights
Louis Brandeis and Samuel Warren in 1890
proposed a new tort for violation of privacy rights-
followed by Roe v wade, Grisworld v Connecticut
Right of privacy-vis avis govt, personal, workplace,
The right extends over collection, retention, use and
disclosure of personal information.
Internet privacy to facilitate e-commerce
Right to privacy connected with Freedom of Right to
speech and expression
Right to privacy is not absolute
The Concept of privacy
Unreasonable intrusion upon a person’s
Public disclosure of private facts
Publicity that places a person in false light
Appropriation of a person's name or
likeness invoked
Right to privacy in India
Article 21 of the Constitution of India-Right to life and
personal liberty by necessary implication confers right to
privacy –
Kharak singh v State of U.P AIR 1963 SC 1295
Gobind v State of M.P 1975 SCC 468
PUCL v UOI (1997) 1 SCC 318
R.Rajagopal v State of Tamil Nadu (1994)6 SC 632-
autoshanker case
Article 19-freedom of speech and expression
Article 19(2) –Reasonable restrictions
One of the restrictions/conditions is National Security
Privacy vs national security balancing competing
India and privacy /national security
India –Article 21 of the constitution of India
Common law-action for damages for unlawful invasion of
privacy exists -2 exceptions-publication relates to public
record, discharge of official duties by public servant
India-IT Act,2000 Cryptography provisions, Section 69-
power to intercept, Section 72-Breach of confidentiality
and privacy, section 80-power to search, seize ,section
44- failure to furnish information, etc
India-Tort of defamation –Section 499 I.P.C
The Right to Information Act,2005-national security and
individual privacy concerns see Section 8
Prevention of terrorism Act 2002 chap V –interception of
e-mail communications
International initiatives
Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1948- Article 12 recognizes
right of privacy
Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights,1996-Right to privacy
Article 8 of the European Convention on Human rights-Right to
Council of Europe Convention on human right in securing privacy
protection in the context of information technology came into force in
1985-now 20 states ratified convention
Basic ples for data protection, trans border flow of information
,establish consultation committee and procedure for future
amendment of convention
European Union Data protection directive 1998-reaffirms principles
introduced in the EU Convention
Guidelines –OECD -1980-On protection of privacy
and trans border flow of personal info

Collection of personal data with consent

Relevance of data to subject under investigation
Specify purpose of collection
No further use except with consent +legal use
Safeguards to prevent leakage
Accountability is high of persons collecting info
A Person’s Right of access, rectification
Collection Limitation
& U.S
UK- Data Protection Act 1998
Processing of data legitimate if person gives consent, legal
obligation, public sector interest
Sensitive personal data not processed till granted express
Section 13-Right to compensation if data controller
contravenes any provisions of the Act
Children’s online privacy protection-U.S-in force since 2000.
U.S Freedom of Information Act, The privacy Act of 1974-
Department of justice v reporters committee for freedom of
U.S-Electronic communication privacy Act-prohibits
unauthorised interception, disclosure of electronic comm-
violation subject to civil, criminal liabilities ,applies to govt,
private persons both
U.S-Daniel Bernstein V U.S Deptt of State 922 F Supp1426(ND
Cal 1996)
Anti-terrorism ACT ,2001-SUNSET REVIEW DEC05.
Threats to privacy
Information provided voluntarily
Softwares to check employee behavior
Satellite vigilance
Protecting privacy
Trust mark-webtrust, truste,etc
Cookie guards-cookie cop, siemen’s webwasher,
cookie crush,etc
Privacy policy of website-p3p-platform for
privacy preference
Secure system for electronic money transfer- e.g
Need for legislation and enforcement
Establish effective dispute resolution