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Thermodynamics

 Thermodynamics is that branch of


the physical sciences that treats of
various phenomena of energy and
the related properties of matter,
especially of the laws of
transformation of heat into forms of
energy and vice versa.
SYSTEM OF UNITS
 Newton’s law states that “the accelerates of a
particular body is directly proportional to the
resultant force acting on it and inversely proportional
to its mass.”

 K is proportionality constant
 Systems of units where k is unity but not
dimensionless: cgs system: 1 dyne force accelerates 1
g mass at 1 cm/s2
 Mks system: 1 newton force accelerates 1 kg mass at
1 m/s2
 Kps system: 1 lb force accelerates 1 slug mass at ft/s2
 Systems of units where k is not unity:
 If the same word is used for both mass and
force in a given system, k is neither unity nor
dimensionless.
 1 lb force accelerates a 1 lb mass at 32.174
ft/s2
 1 g force accelerates a 1 g mass at 980.66
cm/s2
 1 kg force accelerates a 1 kg mass at 908066
m/s2
Acceleration

 A unit of force is one that produces


unit acceleration in a body of unit
mass.
 1 poundal = (1 lbm )( 1 ft/s2 )
 F is force in poundals
 is mass in pounds
 a is acceleration in ft/s2
Mass and Weight

 The mass of a body is the


absolute quantity of matter in it.
 The weight of a body means the
force of gravity Fg on the body.
Problems
1. What is the weight of a
66-kgm man at standard
condition?
Solution
2. The weight of an object is
50 lb. What is it mass at
standard condition?
Solution
3.Five Masses in a region where
the acceleration due to gravity
is 30.5 ft/s2 are as follows: m1 is
500g of mass; m2 weighs 800gf;
m3 weighs 15 poundals; m4
weighs 3lbf; m5 is 0.10 slug of
mass. What is the total mass
expressed (a) in grams, (b) in
pounds, and (c) in slugs.
Solution
4. Note that the gravity acceleration
at equatorial sea level is g = 32.088
fps2 and that its variation is – 0.003
fps2 per 1000 ft ascent. Find the
height in miles above this point for
which (a) the gravity acceleration
becomes 30.504 fps2, (b) the weight
of a 180 lbm man atop the 29,131-ft
Mt. Everest in Tibet, relative to this
point?
Solution
Specific Volume, Density and
Specific Weight
 The density p of any substance is its
mass (not weight) per unit volume.
 The specific volume v is the volume of a
unit mass.
 The specific weight y of any substance is
the force of gravity on unit volume.
 Since the specific weight is to the local
acceleration of gravity as the density is
to the standard acceleration, y/g = p/k,
conversion is easily made;
 At or near the surface of the earth, k
and g are numerically equal, so are p
and y.
Problems
1.What is the specific
weight of water at standard
condition?
Solution
2. Two liquids of different
densities (p = 1500 kg/m3, p2 =
500 kg/m3) are poured together
into a 1000-L tank, filling it. If
the resulting density of the
mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the
respective quantities of liquids
used. Also, find the weight of
the mixture; local g= 9.675
mps2.
Solution
Pressure
The standard reference
atmospheric pressure is
760 mm Hg or 29.92 in. Hg
at 32°F, or 14.696 psia, or 1
atm., or 101.325 kPa., or 1
Bar, (1Bar = 100 kPa, 1Pa =
1N/mm sq.)
Measuring Pressure
1.By using manometers
(a) Absolute pressure is greater than
atmospheric pressure.
(b) Absolute pressure is less than atmospheric
pressure.
2.By using pressure gages
 A pressure gage is a device for measuring gage
pressure.
 This picture shows the movement in one type of
pressure gage known as the single tube gage. The
fluid enters the tube through the threaded
connection. As the pressure increases, the tube
with an elliptical section tends to straighten, the
end that is nearest the linkage toward the right.
 The linkage causes the sector to rotate. The
sector engages a small pinion gear. The index hand
moves with the opinion gear. The whole
mechanism is of course enclosed in a case, and a
graduated dial, from which the pressure is read,
and is placed under the index hand.
Gage Pressure
Problems
A 30-m vertical column of
fluid (density 1878 kg/m )
3

is located where g =
9.65mps . Find the
2

pressure at the base of


the column.
Solution
P = 543, 680 N/sq. meter = 543.68 kPa
Atmospheric Pressure
 A barometer is used to measure atmosphere
pressure.
Problems
1.A vertical column of water
will be supported to what
height by standard
atmospheric pressure.
Solution
2.The pressure of a boiler is 9.5
kg/cm2. The barometric pressure of
the atmosphere is 768 mm of Hg.
Find the absolute pressure in the
boiler. ( ME Board Problem – Oct.
1987 )
Solution
Pg = 9.5 kg/cm2 ho = 768 mm Hg
At standard condition
Yw 1000 kg/m3
Absolute Pressure
Problems
1. A pressure gage registers 40 psig
in a region where the barometer is
14.5 psia. Find the absolute pressure
in psia, and in kPa.
Solution
2. Given the barometric pressure of
14.7 psia (29.92 in. Hg abs), make
these conversations:
a. 80 psig to psia and to
atmosphere,
b. 20 in. Hg vacuum to in. Hg abs
and to psia,
c. 10 psia to psi vacuum and to Pa,
d. 15 in. Hg gage to psia, to torrs,
and to Pa.
(1 atmosphere = 760 torrs)
Solution
Temperature
Conservation of Mass
Problems
1. Two gaseous streams enter a combining
tube and leave as a single mixture. These
data apply at the entrance section:
For one gas, A = 75 in2, v1 = 500fps, v1 =
10ft3/lb
For the other gas, A= 50 in2, m2 = 16.67
lb/s, v2 = 0.12 lb/ft3 At exit, Find
(a) the speed
(b) the flow and area at the exit
section.
Solution
2. A 10-ft diameter by 15-ft height
vertical tank is receiving (ρ = 62.1
lb/cu ft) at the rate of 300 gpm and
is discharging through a 6-in ID line
with a constant speed of 5 fps. At a
given instant, the tank is half full.
Find the water level and the mass
change in the tank 15 min. later.
Solution
Review Problems
Conservation of Energy
(Chapter 1I)
Problems
1. During a steady flow process, the
pressure of the working substance drops
from 200 to 20 psia, the speed increases
from 200 to 1000 fps, the internal energy of
the open system decreases 25 Btu/lb, and
the specific volume increases from 1 to 8
ft3/lb. No heat is transferred. Sketch an
energy diagram. Determine the work per lb.
Is it done on or by the substance?
Determine the work in hp for 10 lb per min.
( 1 hp= 42.4 Btu/min).
Solution
2. Steam is supplied to a fully loaded
100-hp turbine at 200 psia with u1 =
1163.3 Btu/lb, v1 = 2.65 ft3/lb and ʋ1
= 400 fps. Exhaust is at 1 psia with
u2 = 925 Btu/lb, v2 = 294 ft3/lb and
ʋ2 = 1100 fps. The heat loss from
the steam in the turbin is 10 Btu/lb.
Neglect potential energy change
and determine (a) the work per lb
stream and (b) the stream flow rate
in lb/h.
Solution
3. An air compressor (an open system)
receives 272 kg per min of air at 99.29 kPa
and a specific volume of 0.026 m3/kg. The
air flow steady through the compressor and
is discharged at 689.5 kPa and 0.0051 m3/kg.
The initial internal energy of the air is 1594
J/kg ; at discharge, the internal energy is
6241 J/kg. The cooling water circulated
around the cylinder carries away 4383 J/kg
of air. The change in kinetic energy is 896
J/kg increase. Sketch an energy diagram.
Compute the work.
Solution
4. A centrifugal pump operating
under steady flow conditions
delivers 2,270 kg/min of water from
an initial pressure of 82,740 Pa to a
final pressure of 275,800 Pa. The
diameter of the inlet pipe to the
pump is 15.24 cm and the diameter
of the discharge pipe is 10.16 cm.
What is the Work?
Solution
5. A turbine operates under steady flow
conditions, receiving steam at the following
state: pressure 1200 kPa, temperature 188,
enthalpy 2785 kJ/kg, speed 33.3 m/s and
elevation 3 m. The steam leaves the turbine
at the following state; pressure 20 kPa,
enthalpy 2512 kJ/kg, speed 100 m/s and
elevation 0 m. Heat is lost to the
surroundings at the rate of 0.29 kJ/s. If the
rate steam flow through the turbine is 0.42
kg/s, what is the power output of the
turbine in kW?
Solution
Review Problems
The Ideal Gas

(Chapter III)
Problems
1. A drum 6 in. in diameter and 40
in. long contained acetylene at 250
psia and 90F. after some of the
acetylene was used, the pressure
was 200 psia and the temperature
was 85F, (a) What proportion of the
acetylene was used? (b) What
volume would the used acetylene
occupy at 14.7 psia and 80F? R for
acetylene is 59.35 ft.lb/lb.R.
Solution
2. The volume of a 6 x 12-ft tank is
339.3 cu ft. It contains air at 200
psig and 85. How many 1-cu ft
drums can be filled to 50 psig and
80 if it is assumed that the air
temperature in the tank remains at
85? The drums have been sitting
around in the atmosphere which is
at 14.7 psia and 80.
Solution
3. It is planned to lift and move logs
from almost inaccessible forest
areas by means of balloons. Helium
at atmospheric pressure (101.325
kPa) and temperature 21.2 is to be
used in the balloons. What minimum
balloon diameter (assume spherical
shape) will be required for a gross
lifting force of 20 metric tons?
Solution
4. Two vessels A and B of different
sizes are connected by a pipe with a
valve.Vessel A contains 142 L of air
at 2,767.92 kPa, 93.33.Vessel B, of
unknown volume, contains air at
68.95 kPa, 4.44. The valve is opened
and, when the properties have been
determined, it is found that pm =
1378.96 kPa, tm = 43.33. What is the
volume of vessel B?
Solution
Problems
1. For a certain ideal gas R = 25.8
ft.lb/lb and k = 1.09 (a) What are
the values of cp and cv? (b) What
mass of this gas would occupy a
volume of 15 cu ft at 75 psia and
80? (c) If 30 Btu are transferred to
this gas at constant volume in (b),
what are the resulting temperature
and pressure?
Solution
2. For a certain gas R = 320 J/kg. K
and cv = 0.84 kJ/kg.Kc (a) Find cp and
k.(b) If 5 kg of this gas undergo a
reversible non-flow constant
pressure process from V1 = 1.133
m3 and p1 = 690 kPa to a state
where t2 = 555, find and .
Review Problems
Process of Ideal Gases

(Chapter 1V)
Problems
1. Ten cu ft air at 300 psia and 400˚F
is cooled to 140˚F at constant
volume. What are (a) the final
pressure, (b) the work, (c) the
change of internal energy, (d) the
transferred heat, (e) the change of
enthalpy, and (f) the change entropy?
Solution
2. There are 1.36 kg of gas, for
which R= 377 J/kg. k and k=1.25,
that undergo a nonflow constant
volume process from = 551.6 kPa
and = 60˚C to = 1655 kPa. During
the process the gas is internally
stirred and there are also added
105.5 kJ of heat. Determine (a) , (b)
the work input and (c) the change
of entropy.
Solution
3. A group of 50 persons attended a
secret meeting in a room which is 12
wide by 10 meters long and a ceiling of
3 meters. The room is completely
sealed off and insulated. Each person
gives off 150 kcal per hour of heat and
occupies a volume of 0.2 cubic meter.
The room has an initial pressure of
101.3 kPa and temperature of 16.
Calculate the room temperature after
10 minutes. (ME Board Problem – April
1984)
Solution
5. A 1-hp stirring motor is applied to
a tank containing 22.7 kg of water.
The stirring action is applied for 1
hour and the tank losses 850 kJ/h of
heat. Calculate the rise in
temperature of the tank after 1
hour, assuming that the process
occurs at constant volume and that
for water is 4.187 kJ/(kg)(C).
Solution
5. A closed contract-volume system
receives 10.5 kJ of paddle work. The
system contains oxygen at 344 kPa,
278 K, and occupies 0.06 cu m. Find
the heat (gain or loss) if the final
temperature is 400 K. (EE Board
Problem – April 19, 1988)
Solution
Problems
1. A certain gas,with cp=0.529
Btu/lb.R˚ and R=96.2 ft.lb/lb.˚R,
expands from 5 cu ft and 80˚F to 15
cu ft while the pressure remains
constant at 15.5 psia. Compute (a)
T2 (b) ΔH, (c) ΔU and (d) ΔS. (e) For
an internally reversible nonflow
process, what is the work?
Solution
2. A perfect gas has a value of
R=319.2 J/kg.K and k= 1.26. If 120 kJ
are added to 2.27 kg of this gas at
constant pressure when the initial
temperature is 32.2˚C, find (a) T2 ,
(b)ΔH, (c) ΔU, and (d) work for a
nonflow process.
Solution
Problems
1. During an isothermal process at
88˚F, the pressure on 8 lb of air
drops from 80 psia to 5 psig. For an
internally reversible process,
determine (a) the and the work of
a nonflow process, (b) the and the
work of a steady flow process
during which ΔK=0, (c) Q, (d) ΔU
and ΔH, and (e) ΔS.
Solution
2. During a reversible process there
are abstracted 317 kJ/s from 1.134
kg/s of a certain gas while
temperature remain constant at
26.7. For this gas, = 2.232 and =
1.713 kJ/kg.K. The initial pressure is
586 kPa. For both nonflow and
steady (ΔP=0,ΔK=0) process,
determine (a) V1,V2 and p2, (b) the
work and Q, (c) ΔS and ΔH.
Solution
3. Air flows steadily through an
engine at constant temperature, 400
K. Find the work per kilogram if the
exit pressure is one-third the inlet
pressure and the inlet pressure is
207kPa. Assume that the kinetic and
potential energy variation is
negligible. (EE Board Problem-April
1988)
Solution