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Nov 06, 2018

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Thermodynamics

© All Rights Reserved

25 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace11 non mi piace

Thermodynamics

© All Rights Reserved

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the physical sciences that treats of

various phenomena of energy and

the related properties of matter,

especially of the laws of

transformation of heat into forms of

energy and vice versa.

SYSTEM OF UNITS

Newton’s law states that “the accelerates of a

particular body is directly proportional to the

resultant force acting on it and inversely proportional

to its mass.”

K is proportionality constant

Systems of units where k is unity but not

dimensionless: cgs system: 1 dyne force accelerates 1

g mass at 1 cm/s2

Mks system: 1 newton force accelerates 1 kg mass at

1 m/s2

Kps system: 1 lb force accelerates 1 slug mass at ft/s2

Systems of units where k is not unity:

If the same word is used for both mass and

force in a given system, k is neither unity nor

dimensionless.

1 lb force accelerates a 1 lb mass at 32.174

ft/s2

1 g force accelerates a 1 g mass at 980.66

cm/s2

1 kg force accelerates a 1 kg mass at 908066

m/s2

Acceleration

unit acceleration in a body of unit

mass.

1 poundal = (1 lbm )( 1 ft/s2 )

F is force in poundals

is mass in pounds

a is acceleration in ft/s2

Mass and Weight

absolute quantity of matter in it.

The weight of a body means the

force of gravity Fg on the body.

Problems

1. What is the weight of a

66-kgm man at standard

condition?

Solution

2. The weight of an object is

50 lb. What is it mass at

standard condition?

Solution

3.Five Masses in a region where

the acceleration due to gravity

is 30.5 ft/s2 are as follows: m1 is

500g of mass; m2 weighs 800gf;

m3 weighs 15 poundals; m4

weighs 3lbf; m5 is 0.10 slug of

mass. What is the total mass

expressed (a) in grams, (b) in

pounds, and (c) in slugs.

Solution

4. Note that the gravity acceleration

at equatorial sea level is g = 32.088

fps2 and that its variation is – 0.003

fps2 per 1000 ft ascent. Find the

height in miles above this point for

which (a) the gravity acceleration

becomes 30.504 fps2, (b) the weight

of a 180 lbm man atop the 29,131-ft

Mt. Everest in Tibet, relative to this

point?

Solution

Specific Volume, Density and

Specific Weight

The density p of any substance is its

mass (not weight) per unit volume.

The specific volume v is the volume of a

unit mass.

The specific weight y of any substance is

the force of gravity on unit volume.

Since the specific weight is to the local

acceleration of gravity as the density is

to the standard acceleration, y/g = p/k,

conversion is easily made;

At or near the surface of the earth, k

and g are numerically equal, so are p

and y.

Problems

1.What is the specific

weight of water at standard

condition?

Solution

2. Two liquids of different

densities (p = 1500 kg/m3, p2 =

500 kg/m3) are poured together

into a 1000-L tank, filling it. If

the resulting density of the

mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the

respective quantities of liquids

used. Also, find the weight of

the mixture; local g= 9.675

mps2.

Solution

Pressure

The standard reference

atmospheric pressure is

760 mm Hg or 29.92 in. Hg

at 32°F, or 14.696 psia, or 1

atm., or 101.325 kPa., or 1

Bar, (1Bar = 100 kPa, 1Pa =

1N/mm sq.)

Measuring Pressure

1.By using manometers

(a) Absolute pressure is greater than

atmospheric pressure.

(b) Absolute pressure is less than atmospheric

pressure.

2.By using pressure gages

A pressure gage is a device for measuring gage

pressure.

This picture shows the movement in one type of

pressure gage known as the single tube gage. The

fluid enters the tube through the threaded

connection. As the pressure increases, the tube

with an elliptical section tends to straighten, the

end that is nearest the linkage toward the right.

The linkage causes the sector to rotate. The

sector engages a small pinion gear. The index hand

moves with the opinion gear. The whole

mechanism is of course enclosed in a case, and a

graduated dial, from which the pressure is read,

and is placed under the index hand.

Gage Pressure

Problems

A 30-m vertical column of

fluid (density 1878 kg/m )

3

is located where g =

9.65mps . Find the

2

the column.

Solution

P = 543, 680 N/sq. meter = 543.68 kPa

Atmospheric Pressure

A barometer is used to measure atmosphere

pressure.

Problems

1.A vertical column of water

will be supported to what

height by standard

atmospheric pressure.

Solution

2.The pressure of a boiler is 9.5

kg/cm2. The barometric pressure of

the atmosphere is 768 mm of Hg.

Find the absolute pressure in the

boiler. ( ME Board Problem – Oct.

1987 )

Solution

Pg = 9.5 kg/cm2 ho = 768 mm Hg

At standard condition

Yw 1000 kg/m3

Absolute Pressure

Problems

1. A pressure gage registers 40 psig

in a region where the barometer is

14.5 psia. Find the absolute pressure

in psia, and in kPa.

Solution

2. Given the barometric pressure of

14.7 psia (29.92 in. Hg abs), make

these conversations:

a. 80 psig to psia and to

atmosphere,

b. 20 in. Hg vacuum to in. Hg abs

and to psia,

c. 10 psia to psi vacuum and to Pa,

d. 15 in. Hg gage to psia, to torrs,

and to Pa.

(1 atmosphere = 760 torrs)

Solution

Temperature

Conservation of Mass

Problems

1. Two gaseous streams enter a combining

tube and leave as a single mixture. These

data apply at the entrance section:

For one gas, A = 75 in2, v1 = 500fps, v1 =

10ft3/lb

For the other gas, A= 50 in2, m2 = 16.67

lb/s, v2 = 0.12 lb/ft3 At exit, Find

(a) the speed

(b) the flow and area at the exit

section.

Solution

2. A 10-ft diameter by 15-ft height

vertical tank is receiving (ρ = 62.1

lb/cu ft) at the rate of 300 gpm and

is discharging through a 6-in ID line

with a constant speed of 5 fps. At a

given instant, the tank is half full.

Find the water level and the mass

change in the tank 15 min. later.

Solution

Review Problems

Conservation of Energy

(Chapter 1I)

Problems

1. During a steady flow process, the

pressure of the working substance drops

from 200 to 20 psia, the speed increases

from 200 to 1000 fps, the internal energy of

the open system decreases 25 Btu/lb, and

the specific volume increases from 1 to 8

ft3/lb. No heat is transferred. Sketch an

energy diagram. Determine the work per lb.

Is it done on or by the substance?

Determine the work in hp for 10 lb per min.

( 1 hp= 42.4 Btu/min).

Solution

2. Steam is supplied to a fully loaded

100-hp turbine at 200 psia with u1 =

1163.3 Btu/lb, v1 = 2.65 ft3/lb and ʋ1

= 400 fps. Exhaust is at 1 psia with

u2 = 925 Btu/lb, v2 = 294 ft3/lb and

ʋ2 = 1100 fps. The heat loss from

the steam in the turbin is 10 Btu/lb.

Neglect potential energy change

and determine (a) the work per lb

stream and (b) the stream flow rate

in lb/h.

Solution

3. An air compressor (an open system)

receives 272 kg per min of air at 99.29 kPa

and a specific volume of 0.026 m3/kg. The

air flow steady through the compressor and

is discharged at 689.5 kPa and 0.0051 m3/kg.

The initial internal energy of the air is 1594

J/kg ; at discharge, the internal energy is

6241 J/kg. The cooling water circulated

around the cylinder carries away 4383 J/kg

of air. The change in kinetic energy is 896

J/kg increase. Sketch an energy diagram.

Compute the work.

Solution

4. A centrifugal pump operating

under steady flow conditions

delivers 2,270 kg/min of water from

an initial pressure of 82,740 Pa to a

final pressure of 275,800 Pa. The

diameter of the inlet pipe to the

pump is 15.24 cm and the diameter

of the discharge pipe is 10.16 cm.

What is the Work?

Solution

5. A turbine operates under steady flow

conditions, receiving steam at the following

state: pressure 1200 kPa, temperature 188,

enthalpy 2785 kJ/kg, speed 33.3 m/s and

elevation 3 m. The steam leaves the turbine

at the following state; pressure 20 kPa,

enthalpy 2512 kJ/kg, speed 100 m/s and

elevation 0 m. Heat is lost to the

surroundings at the rate of 0.29 kJ/s. If the

rate steam flow through the turbine is 0.42

kg/s, what is the power output of the

turbine in kW?

Solution

Review Problems

The Ideal Gas

(Chapter III)

Problems

1. A drum 6 in. in diameter and 40

in. long contained acetylene at 250

psia and 90F. after some of the

acetylene was used, the pressure

was 200 psia and the temperature

was 85F, (a) What proportion of the

acetylene was used? (b) What

volume would the used acetylene

occupy at 14.7 psia and 80F? R for

acetylene is 59.35 ft.lb/lb.R.

Solution

2. The volume of a 6 x 12-ft tank is

339.3 cu ft. It contains air at 200

psig and 85. How many 1-cu ft

drums can be filled to 50 psig and

80 if it is assumed that the air

temperature in the tank remains at

85? The drums have been sitting

around in the atmosphere which is

at 14.7 psia and 80.

Solution

3. It is planned to lift and move logs

from almost inaccessible forest

areas by means of balloons. Helium

at atmospheric pressure (101.325

kPa) and temperature 21.2 is to be

used in the balloons. What minimum

balloon diameter (assume spherical

shape) will be required for a gross

lifting force of 20 metric tons?

Solution

4. Two vessels A and B of different

sizes are connected by a pipe with a

valve.Vessel A contains 142 L of air

at 2,767.92 kPa, 93.33.Vessel B, of

unknown volume, contains air at

68.95 kPa, 4.44. The valve is opened

and, when the properties have been

determined, it is found that pm =

1378.96 kPa, tm = 43.33. What is the

volume of vessel B?

Solution

Problems

1. For a certain ideal gas R = 25.8

ft.lb/lb and k = 1.09 (a) What are

the values of cp and cv? (b) What

mass of this gas would occupy a

volume of 15 cu ft at 75 psia and

80? (c) If 30 Btu are transferred to

this gas at constant volume in (b),

what are the resulting temperature

and pressure?

Solution

2. For a certain gas R = 320 J/kg. K

and cv = 0.84 kJ/kg.Kc (a) Find cp and

k.(b) If 5 kg of this gas undergo a

reversible non-flow constant

pressure process from V1 = 1.133

m3 and p1 = 690 kPa to a state

where t2 = 555, find and .

Review Problems

Process of Ideal Gases

(Chapter 1V)

Problems

1. Ten cu ft air at 300 psia and 400˚F

is cooled to 140˚F at constant

volume. What are (a) the final

pressure, (b) the work, (c) the

change of internal energy, (d) the

transferred heat, (e) the change of

enthalpy, and (f) the change entropy?

Solution

2. There are 1.36 kg of gas, for

which R= 377 J/kg. k and k=1.25,

that undergo a nonflow constant

volume process from = 551.6 kPa

and = 60˚C to = 1655 kPa. During

the process the gas is internally

stirred and there are also added

105.5 kJ of heat. Determine (a) , (b)

the work input and (c) the change

of entropy.

Solution

3. A group of 50 persons attended a

secret meeting in a room which is 12

wide by 10 meters long and a ceiling of

3 meters. The room is completely

sealed off and insulated. Each person

gives off 150 kcal per hour of heat and

occupies a volume of 0.2 cubic meter.

The room has an initial pressure of

101.3 kPa and temperature of 16.

Calculate the room temperature after

10 minutes. (ME Board Problem – April

1984)

Solution

5. A 1-hp stirring motor is applied to

a tank containing 22.7 kg of water.

The stirring action is applied for 1

hour and the tank losses 850 kJ/h of

heat. Calculate the rise in

temperature of the tank after 1

hour, assuming that the process

occurs at constant volume and that

for water is 4.187 kJ/(kg)(C).

Solution

5. A closed contract-volume system

receives 10.5 kJ of paddle work. The

system contains oxygen at 344 kPa,

278 K, and occupies 0.06 cu m. Find

the heat (gain or loss) if the final

temperature is 400 K. (EE Board

Problem – April 19, 1988)

Solution

Problems

1. A certain gas,with cp=0.529

Btu/lb.R˚ and R=96.2 ft.lb/lb.˚R,

expands from 5 cu ft and 80˚F to 15

cu ft while the pressure remains

constant at 15.5 psia. Compute (a)

T2 (b) ΔH, (c) ΔU and (d) ΔS. (e) For

an internally reversible nonflow

process, what is the work?

Solution

2. A perfect gas has a value of

R=319.2 J/kg.K and k= 1.26. If 120 kJ

are added to 2.27 kg of this gas at

constant pressure when the initial

temperature is 32.2˚C, find (a) T2 ,

(b)ΔH, (c) ΔU, and (d) work for a

nonflow process.

Solution

Problems

1. During an isothermal process at

88˚F, the pressure on 8 lb of air

drops from 80 psia to 5 psig. For an

internally reversible process,

determine (a) the and the work of

a nonflow process, (b) the and the

work of a steady flow process

during which ΔK=0, (c) Q, (d) ΔU

and ΔH, and (e) ΔS.

Solution

2. During a reversible process there

are abstracted 317 kJ/s from 1.134

kg/s of a certain gas while

temperature remain constant at

26.7. For this gas, = 2.232 and =

1.713 kJ/kg.K. The initial pressure is

586 kPa. For both nonflow and

steady (ΔP=0,ΔK=0) process,

determine (a) V1,V2 and p2, (b) the

work and Q, (c) ΔS and ΔH.

Solution

3. Air flows steadily through an

engine at constant temperature, 400

K. Find the work per kilogram if the

exit pressure is one-third the inlet

pressure and the inlet pressure is

207kPa. Assume that the kinetic and

potential energy variation is

negligible. (EE Board Problem-April

1988)

Solution

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