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Project

To improve Paging
Objective

• To improve “Network Quality”.


• To increase “Competence”.
• To get more awareness about the NPIS process.
• Learning Systematic Approach to resolve problems.

Planned & Structured way of working is always good.


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Accessibility Definition
Call to an MS
MSC/VLR
1. MSC/VLR sends paging command to all BSCs
1 belonging to the location area (LA) where MS is located

TRC 2. BSC forwards the paging command to all BTSs in that


1 LA, and the BTSs in their turn page the MS on the PCH

BSC 2
3. The MS responds to the BTS on the RACH and the BTS
forwards the response to the BSC (forward to MSC)
5
3
2 2 4. The BSCs checks with the BTS if it has an SDCCH
4
available and the BTS grants the MS an SDCCH by using
the AGCH

5. The MS and the BTS signal on the SDCCH,


measurement reports sent on SACCH are forwarded from
BTS the BTS to the BSC and once the signalling is done the
6 BSC decides which TCH to use
BTS 5
3 6. TCH connection established between MS and BTS
2
4

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Paging – Overview

Paging Paging
global All BSC command Request

Paging in the
message MSC Cells with specified LAC
MSC
BSC wt
cells
local Paging Paging
using command Request
specified
LAC

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Paging – Overview

 MS can be paged by IMSI or TMSI


 Up to 4 Paging Requests per Paging block

IMSI IMSI or T T T T or IMSI T T


Note: T = TMSI

 MS only listens for paging at particular PCH sub-channel


corresponding to its Paging Group

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Paging - Overview
VLR has an LAI
(normal case) Local LAI is missing

yes Paging? no
Paging in one LA. Wait for Paging in MSC area. Wait for
response: response:
PAGTIMEFRST1LA PAGTIMEFRSTGLOB

Answer? yes Successful yes Answer?


no no
2nd page according to 2nd page according to
PAGREP1LA PAGREPGLOB
Either 1 2 3 0 0 1
TMSI/IMSI IMSI used
Paging in one LA. Paging in MSC area. Paging in MSC area.
Wait for response: Wait for response: No repeated Wait for response:
PAGTIMEREP1LA PAGTIMEREPGLOB paging PAGTIMEREPGLOB

Answer? no no Answer?
unsuccessful

yes Successful yes

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Paging - Overview Paging

 Monitor and detect congestion on


paging channel MSC

Paging
BSC Removed due to overflow

Paging Removed due to time-out

BTS
Removed due to overflow

LA 1 Removed due to time-out

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Paging – General Inputs & Tools

 Network Configuration
 Network Architecture
 Overview on Network Features
 BO Reports
 BSC,MSC dumps
 Coverage Plot (To See Location Area)
 Interference Plot
 Nexplorer or EXERT
 MCOM

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Paging – BO Measurements
 MSC Level Measurements
– Total Pages in a day
– Global Page Rate
– Repeated Page Rate
– Success Rate First Page
– Paging Success Rate
 Location Area Level
– Total Pages (Day & Busy Hour)
– Repeated page Rate
– Paging Success Rate

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Paging – Probable Reasons
 Paging Congestion in MSC
 Paging Congestion in BSC
 Paging Congestion in BTS
 Poor Paging Strategy
 Poor Parameters Settings
 Poor Coverage
 High Interference
 Non Optimum Location Area
 High HR Traffic

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Paging – Probable Reasons
Paging Congestion in MSC

Check with COFLP Command !!

Analyze along with MSC dumps !!!

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Paging – Probable Reasons
Paging Congestion in BSC
 It is difficult to estimate BSC Paging Capacity
 Rule of thumb: BSC can accommodate 8500 Paging
Commands/sec
 Check LAPD Concentration strategy
 To further optimize the BSC paging capacity, paging queue
overflow can be monitored with the following formula:
TOTCONPAG
PAG _ FAIL   100%
TOTPAG

Where TOTCONPAG - step for every discarded paging message


when paging queue is full
TOTPAG - paging messages received from MSC

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Paging – Probable Reasons
Paging Congestion in BTS

 CCCH consists of 2 sub-channels for DL: PCH & AGCH


 AGCH used to allocate resource to MS during call setup
 PCH used to send paging request to MS
 Two types of Channel Configuration:
– Combined BCCH/SDCCH
 3 CCCH blocks
– Non combined BCCH/SDCCH
 9 CCCH blocks
 AGCH can have dedicated blocks or work by stealing
mode

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Paging – Probable Reasons
Paging Strategy
What is our
 Recommended paging strategy is: Strategy ?
– First page as local page the MS by TMSI
– Second page as global page the MS by IMSI

 Other strategies and constraints:


– No second page: Less paging load, but risk more unsuccessful
paging
– Second local page: Less paging load, risk more unsuccessful
paging
– Second page by TMSI: Utilize less paging capacity, but some
pages maybe unsuccessful if TMSI of MS is wrong in VLR

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Paging – Parameter Settings
Should ATT=ON
 IMSI attach/detach
– If ATT = ON, MS will send attach/detach information to
MSC/VLR when it is powered on/off.
– Decrease unnecessary paging to MS not connected to network
– Constraint is higher SDCCH utilization

Should T3212=20
 Periodic Registration
– Avoid paging MS which lost coverage and not able to inform the
system that it is inactive
– Timer T3212 specifies the period for periodic registration
– Shorter T3212 leads to less paging, but higher utilization of
SDCCH

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Paging Capacity Impacting parameters
Should NCOMB
 BCCHTYPE: NCOMB or COMB
– Non-combined BCCH will give higher paging capacity than
combined BCCH
Should AGBLK=1
 AGBLK: 0 – 1
– AGBLK=0 gives higher paging capacity than AGBLK=1
MFRMS=5
 MFRMS: 2 – 9
– The lower value for MFRMS, the higher paging capacity due to
trunking efficiency
– MFRMS setting is a trade off between battery consumption and
call set up time

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Paging – Analysis Action
The following actions can improve Paging Congestion:
 No LAPD Multiplexing.
 MSC Paging Congestion
– Increase SAE
 BSC/BTS Paging Congestion
– Check Paging Strategy
– Increase number of Location Areas (This will increase SDCCH
load)
– Set BCCHTYPE to NCOMB
– Use TMSI paging requests
– Ensure IMSI attach/detach is activated (ATT = yes)
– Decrease T3212/BTDM (This will increase SDCCH load)

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Paging – Work Flow
Low Paging Success

Yes
No TMSI Attach Activate
/ Detach?
No

Wrong periodic location


Yes Correct T3212 in BSC,
updating setting? BTDM & GTDM in MSC

No

SDCCH Yes Ÿ Increase SDCCH channel


Congestion? ŸAdaptive configuration feature

No

Paging Yes Ÿ Plan more LA


congestion? Ÿ Use TMSI paging
No

Yes
TMSI paging Activate
not use?
No

Implicit detach Yes


after not periodic Activate
registration not use?

No

END

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Paging - KPI
 Paging Success Rate is measured on MSC level or Location Area
and calculated with the following formulas:

Paging Success Rate (1st+2nd page)

– Successful First and Second Pages of Total Number of First


Pages

TOTALCELLS

1
NPAG1RESUCC  NPAG2RESUCC
TOTALCELLS
* 100[%]
 1
NPAG1GLTOT  NPAG1LOTOT

This is the End-User perceived Paging Success Rate, which is


used as the Paging KPI.

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Paging – STS Counter Summary
 Paging Success STS counters
– NPAG1GLTOT: The number of first global page attempts over A-
Interface
– NPAG1LOTOT: The number of first page attempts to a location area
over A-Interface
– NPAG1RESUCC: The number of page responses to first page
attempt on A-interface
– NPAGE2RESUCC: The number of page responses to repeated page
over A-interface

 Paging Congestion STS counters


– TOTPAG: Number of paging messages received from the MSC
– TOTCONGPAG: Number of Paging messages discarded due to
congestion
– PAGPCHCONG: Number of discarded paging messages due to full
paging Queue.
– PAGETOOOLD: Number of discarded paging messages due to old
paging messages.

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Paging – Parameter Summary
Parameter Range Recommended Description
MFRMS 2-9 CCCH 4 MF period between
Multiframe transmission of
paging message to
same paging group
AGBLK 0-7 0 Reserved CCCH
blocks for AGCH
BCCHTYPE COMB, - Channel configuration
COMBC,
NCOMB
T3212 0-255 40 Time between period
registration
ATT YES, NO YES IMSI Attach/ detach
allowed
CRH 0-14 (steps of 4 Hysteresis used when
2) dB MS in idle crosses a
LA area
GPRSNWMODE 0-3 2 (No Gs- Whether or not Gs-
Interface & no interface & MPDCH
MPDCH used) used

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Paging – Parameter Summary
Parameter Recommended Description
BTDM T3212 * 6 Implicit detach supervision
GTDM 6 min Extra guard time before
Range: 0-255 subscriber set to detached
TDD OFF (default) Time inactive IMSI in VLR
before it is removed
PAGTIMEFRST1LA 4sec (default) Time supervision for page
Range: 2-10sec response for first page
PAGTIMEFRSTGLOB 4sec (default) Time supervision for page
Range: 2-10sec response for first global page
PAGREP1LA 2 (recommend) How second page is sent
Range: 0-3
PAGEREPGLOB 0 How global page is repeated
Range: 0-1
PAGTIMEREP1LA 7sec (default) Time supervision for page
Range: 2-10sec response for second page
PAGTIMEREPGLOB 7sec (default) Time supervision for page
Range: 2-10sec response for second global
page

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Paging – Parameter Summary
Parameter Recommended Description
TMSIPAR 1 or 2 TMSI should be used or not
TMSILAIMSC 0 (default) New TMSI to be allocated at
Range: 0-1 change or LAI within
MSC/VLR
SECPAGEPATH 1 (recommend) Define which interface 2nd
Range: 0-2 paging is sent
TIMPAGINGM 9 sec Time supervision for 1st CS
Range:2-20sec paging sent over Gs interface

SGSN Parameter
Parameter Recommended Description
T3133 5 sec Time supervision for PS
Fixed Paging

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Activities (Brainstorming)
Way Forward
By enlarge Activities can be divided into following
subgroups.
• Activities which can be done for all cells.
( MSC/BSC Parameters,….)

• Activities can be done for little smaller group.


(Cell Parameters, SD Congestion)

• Activities which can be done for small group.


( LAPD Concentration, Feature Trials …..)

Segmentation of Activities will help in monitoring activities.


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