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UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DE

VENEZUELA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA

Luciana Bottini C.I.V- 25.867.067


Maria Laura Plasencia C.I.V- 26.576.162
GLOSSARY

• Ginning mills  Desmotadoras


A machine that separates the seeds,
seed hulls, and other small objects
from the fibers of cotton.

• Triglyceride  Triglicérido
An ester formed from glycerol and
three fatty acid groups

• Catalysts  catalizadores
Substance that causes or
accelerates a chemical reaction
without itself being affected.

• Solvent  Solvente
A substance that dissolves another
to form a solution.
• Reagent  Reactivo
A substance or compound added to a
system to cause a chemical reaction, or
added to test if a reaction occurs

• Polyunsaturates  Poliinsaturados
A class of animal or vegetable fat,
especially plant oils, whose molecules
consist of carbon chains with many
double bonds unsaturated by hydrogen
atoms and that are associated with a low
cholesterol content of the blood

• Lard  Manteca de cerdo


Fat from the abdomen of a pig that is
rendered and clarified for use in cooking.
HISTORY

Oily materials have been used for different purposes since


the beginnings of mankind and, with the advancedment
of science, this uses have grown and now vegetable oils
are an essential part of civilization has we know it

• Roman Empire

• Bronze Age

• XIX Century: French chemist Michel-Eugéne Chevreul

• XX Century: P&G  Crisco


A vegetable oil is a triglyceride
extracted from a plant. The term
"vegetable oil" can be narrowly
defined as referring only to plant oils
that are liquid at room temperature, or
broadly defined without regard to a
substance's state of matter at a given
temperature. For this reason,
vegetable oils that are solid at room
temperature are sometimes called
vegetable fats.

CLASSIFICATION OF OILS BY THE AMOUNT


OF FATTY ACIDS:

• Oleic: like olive oil, almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, etc.


• Inoleics: such as grape oil, sunflower oil, nuts, wheat, cotton,
etc.
• Linolenics: like the oil of linen and rapeseed.
RAW MATERIALS

The main raw materials used in the oil industry are oilseeds and other parts
of plants, such as the following:
• Almond • Rapeseed
• Argan • Safflower
• Borage • Sesame
• Canola • Shea
• Castor • Sunflower
• Cherry • Tonka bean
• Coconut
• Corn
• Cotton
• Grape
• Hemp In addition, the following elements should be
• Jojoba considered as reagents or additives: phosphoric
• Macadamia acid, caustic soda, hexane, catalysts, hydrogen,
• Mustard antioxidant, nitrogen, milk, salt, water,
• Neem preservatives, egg and lemon
EXTRACTION

• Preparation :
- Cleaning and Drying: The raw material that arrives at the
plant has to be cleaned to remove foreign matter.

• Mechanical preparation:
− The raw material has to be broken to reduce the size of the
particles and ensure cooking. After cooking, the ground
grains are flattened in flakes to break the oil cells and
consequently the oil more available for later extraction
with solvents or mechanical pressing.
− Pressing: Oilseeds are usually mechanically pressed in order
to extract most of the oil available in the raw material,
producing a paste with a higher content of residual oil that
is later recovered with solvents.
• Solvent extraction:
− The de-oiled solids leaving the extractor are transported to a
dedicated equipment that completely removes the remaining
solvent.

• Hydrogenation:
− Oils may be partially hydrogenated to produce various
ingredient oils.
• Deodorization :
− Nearly all soybean, corn, and
canola oils found on
supermarket shelves go through
a deodorization stage that
removes trace amounts of odors
and flavors, and lightens the
color of the oil.
USAGE

The vegetable oils obtained and their sub products, such as


pressed cakes, can we used in diverse industries to produce:

• Food
-For human consumption
-For animal consumption

• Cosmetics

• Pigments and oil base


paints

• Bio Fuel
-Such as biodiesel