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Physics Form 5
Chapter 1: Waves
Understanding Waves

Analyzing Reflection of Waves

Analyzing Refraction of Waves

Analyzing Diffraction of Waves

Analyzing Interference of Waves

Analyzing Sound Waves

Analyzing Electromagnetic Waves


Physics Form 5
Chapter 1: Waves
Understanding Waves

Analyzing Reflection of Waves

Analyzing Refraction of Waves

Analyzing Diffraction of Waves

Analyzing Interference of Waves

Analyzing Sound Waves

Analyzing Electromagnetic Waves

Prepared by: Sharvinder Singh


Part 1: Understanding Waves

 Wave is spreading of disturbance from a vibrating or oscillating


motion

 Oscillating system : A system that moves back and forth along a line
about a fixed central point
 Disturbance of still water surface produce
water waves

 Vibration of electron in an atom produces


light waves

 Vibration of a drum skin produces sound


wave
LIGHT WATER

Example of Waves

SOUND ELECTROMAGNETIC
Very Important
 As wave travels, it transfers energy and momentum from one place
to another without transferring matter through medium of transfer
 3 medium of transfer: Solid, Liquid and Gas
 In which medium sound travels the fastest? Sound wave

 Vsolid > Vliquid > Vgas


 Sound wave travels by the vibration of particles

 Sound wave travels fastest through solids


 The particles in a solid are closer together than in a liquid or gas.
Thus, vibrations are more easily passed from particle to particle
enabling sound to travel faster
 What happens when the speaker is
switched on?
 The flame vibrates
 Explain your answer?
 Sound energy from speaker
(matter) is transferred through air
(medium of transfer) and causes the
candle’s flame to vibrate
 What happens when the speaker’s
volume is increased?
 The flame vibrates stronger What happens to the sound of an
alarm clock if the system is
connected to a vacuum pump?
Types of Wave
Transverse Wave Longitudinal Wave

Vibration of the particles in the Vibration of the particles in the


medium is perpendicular to the medium is parallel to the
direction of the propagation direction of the propagation
(movement) of the wave (movement) of the wave

Example: Example:
Water, light, electromagnetic Sound waves
Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
 Similarities between two waves:
 Produced by vibration/oscillation
 Propagated by vibration/oscillation of medium particles
 Carry energy or momentum without transferring matter.
 Difference between two waves

Transverse Longitudinal
Aspects
Wave Wave
Direction of vibration w.r.t
Perpendicular Parallel
direction of propagation
Position of minimum and
maximum displacement Perpendicular Parallel

Examples Light, Water,


Sound
Electromagnetic
Wavefront

 Wavefront is an imaginary line


on a wave over which particles
are vibrating in the same phase

 Direction of propagation of a
wave is perpendicular to its
wavefront
 Types: Circular and plane
Plane Wavefronts
 Can be produced by a wooden bar that vibrates vertically at a
constant frequency.
 The lines AB, CD, EF, GH, IJ, KL are called wavefronts
 The wavefronts are perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
CREST
B D F

Direction of
H J L
propagation
A C E

G TROUGH I K
Circular Wavefronts

Spherical dipper  Can be produced by using a


spherical dipper that vibrates
vertically at a constant frequency.
 The wavefronts are perpendicular
D
to the direction of propagation
B

Direction of
A propagation
C
Amplitude, Period and Frequency
 Amplitude, A – maximum
displacement from its equilibrium
position
A C
 Period, T – time taken to complete
B
an oscillation  1 complete oscillation
A B C B A
T = t/n
 Frequency, f – number of complete
oscillation per second
f = n/t or f = 1/T
n = number of completed oscillations
t = time taken
Sketch Graph (Think Like A Pro)

T f fT

f T f

T f T

1/f 1/T fT
Example 1 Example 2
In an experiment, Fernandez observes a In an experiment, the frequency of the
simple pendulum completes 35 oscillation is 5 Hz and the time of
oscillations in 55 seconds. What is the oscillation is 40 s. Calculate the period
period and frequency of oscillation? and number of oscillation.
Displacement – Time Graph
Displacement / cm

crest
a
t=t1 s
amplitude
t=0 s
t=t2 s Time / s
t=t4 s 0
t1 t2 t3 t4
trough
t=t3 s -a
period
Period is the time taken to complete an oscillation
Displacement – Distance Graph
Displacement / cm

a
s1

s=0 Distance / cm
s2
s4 0
s1 s2 s3 s4

s3 -a
Wavelength, λ

Wavelength is the distance between two successive crests or troughs


Work Smart
a

-a

-a
Work Smart
a

-a

-a
Work Smart
a

-a

-a
Example 3 Example 4
Figure below shows the displacement- Figure below shows the displacement-
time graph for an oscillating system. distance graph for an oscillating system.
Calculate the amplitude, period and Calculate the amplitude and wavelength
frequency
Wave Speed
 Speed (v), wavelength (λ) and frequency (f)
 Wave speed: v = fλ
 distance moved by a wave in one second
 depends on the medium through which the wave is travelling
 Vsolid > Vliquid > Vgas
 Extra notes:
 If frequency of waves is 10Hz, it mean it produces 10 complete
waves in 1 second
 How to determine 1 complete wave?
Example 5 Example 6
A vibrating system produces waves at a James Bond dropped a rock into a pool
frequency of 25 Hz. If the wavelength of produces waves with a speed of 0.8 ms-1
the waves is 1.0 cm, what is the wave and wavelength of 0.20 m. Calculate the
speed? frequency of the waves.
Example 7 Example 8
A tuning fork produces sound waves with Figure below shows the pattern of sea
a frequency of 170 Hz. If the speed of waves striking the coast with a speed of
sound in air is 350 ms-1, find the 16 ms-1. Calculate the frequency of the
wavelength of the sound waves. sea waves.
Example 9 Solution
Figure below shows the displacement-
time graph and displacement-distance
graph of a source of wave. Find the value
of wave speed.
Damping
 Ideal situation – no energy is lost from the oscillating system
 Figure below shows as ideal oscillating system;
Energy

Kinetic
energy

Potential
energy
-A A Displacement

 The energy alternates between potential energy and kinetic energy


with no energy loss to the surroundings. This is not possible in real
life.
Damping
 Actual situation – a system undergoes
damping and is energy is lost to the
surroundings.

 Consider an oscillation of a simple pendulum.

 Amplitude of oscillation will gradually


decrease and finally becomes zero when
oscillation stops.

 This is caused by air resistance and frictions

 An oscillating system undergoes damping


when the system losses energy to the
surrounding in the form of heat energy.
Damping (Actual Situation)
Displacement / cm Heavy Damping
Damping causes
amplitude to decrease

T1 T2 T3 Time / s

Slight Damping
Used in shock absorbers in cars so
that passengers won’t bounce
for too long
Damping & Resonance
 Damping – a process where oscillations die down due to loss of
energy
 Two types;
 Internal – caused by compression and rarefaction of molecules
 External – caused by friction between oscillation system and air
 Effects of damping:
 amplitude decreases
 energy decreases
 frequency remains constant because period remains constant
 Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a
frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external
force.

 The resonating system will oscillate at maximum amplitude


Resonance
2. Oscillating motion is transmitted along supporting string

Driver
pendulum

3. All pendulum starts to oscillate

1. Driver pendulum is 4. Pendulum D which is same length with


pulled back and released the driver pendulum oscillates with the
largest amplitude and is said to be in
resonance