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CONTENTS OF SYLLABUS

GEOSYNTHETICS
1. Overview of Geosynthetics: Introduction, Types of Geosynthetics, Basic characteristics,
Raw Materials, Manufacturing Processes, Function and Selection, Application Area
2. Properties and Test Methods: Introduction, Physical Properties, Mechanical Properties,
Hydraulic Properties, Endurance and Degradation Properties, Test and allowable
properties.
3. Designing with Geosynthetics: Introduction, Design with reinforced earth foundation
and earth wall with using different Geosynthetics materials like Geotextile, Geogrid and
Geocomposite.

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CONTENTS OF SYLLABUS
REINFORCED EARTH FOUNDATION
1. Shallow Foundation on Reinforced soil: Introduction, Foundations on Metallic-Strip–
Reinforced Granular Soil, Foundations on Geogrid-Reinforced Granular Soil.
2. Evaluation of Static and Dynamic Properties of Soil : Basic Terminology, Plate load
test, Block vibration test, Cyclic Plate load test, Wave propagation Test for determination
of shear modulus.
3. Dynamic Analysis of Foundation: Theory of Vibration, Foundation Subjected to
vibration, Dynamic analysis of block foundation
4. State of art on “Closely Spaced Footing on Reinforced Earth under Static and Dynamic
Loading”
2
CONTENTS
 Overview of Geosynthetics
 Types of Geosynthetics
 Basic characteristic of Geosynthetics
 Polymer used in Manufacturing of Geosynthetics
 Manufacturing Process of Geosynthetics
 Function of Geosynthetics
 Application of Geosynthetics
 Properties and Test methods

3
CONTENTS
 Reinforced Earth
 Reinforced Earth Foundation
 Reinforced Earth Wall
 Dynamic Properties of Soil
Theory of Vibration
 Literature Review
 References

4
OVERVIEW OF GEOSYNTHETICS
GEOSYNTHETICS
A planar, polymeric (synthetic or natural) material used in contact with
soil/rock and/or any other civil engineering material, for Filtration,
Drainage, Separation, Reinforcement, Protection, Sealing and
Packing.(Sanjay Kumar shukla-2006)
The materials used in the manufacture of geosynthetics are primarily
synthetic polymers generally derived from crude petroleum oils;
although rubber, fiberglass, and other materials are also sometimes
used for manufacturing geosynthetics.

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OVERVIEW OF GEOSYNTHETICS
GEONATURALS
Products, based on natural fibres ( jute, coir, cotton, wool, etc.), are
also being used in contact with soil, rock and/or other civil
engineering-related material, especially in temporary civil engineering
applications. Such products, that may be called geonaturals.(Sanjay
Kumar shukla-2006)
They have a short life span when used with earth materials due to their
biodegradable characteristics, and therefore, they have not many field
applications as geosynthetics have (Shukla, 2006).

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TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Geotextiles  Geocell
Geogrids  Geomat

Geomembranes,  Geomess

Geocomposites  Geosrip
 Geospacer
Geonets,
Geopipes
Geofoam

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TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Geotextiles
A permeable geosynthetic comprised solely of textiles.
The synthetic fibres are made into a flexible, porous fabric by standard weaving
machinery or are matted together in a random, or nonwoven manner; some are also
knit.
Type of Geotextile:
Woven: A geotextile produced by interlacing, usually at right angles, two or more sets
of yarns (made of one or several fibres) or other elements using a conventional
weaving process with a weaving loom.

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TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Non woven: A geotextile produced from directionally or randomly oriented fibres
into a loose web by bonding with partial melting, needle-punching, or chemical
binding agents (glue, rubber, latex, cellulose derivative, etc.).

Knitted geotextile: A geotextile produced by interlooping one or more yarns (or


other elements) together with a knitting machine, instead of a weaving loom.

Stitched geotextile: A geotextile in which fibres or yarns or both are interlocked/


bonded by stitching or sewing.

9
TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS

Woven Geotextile Non Woven Geotextile

Knitted Geotextile

10
TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Geogrid
It is a planar, polymeric product consisting of a mesh or net-like regular open
network of intersecting tensile-resistant elements, called ribs, integrally
connected at the junctions.
The ribs can be linked by extrusion, bonding or interlacing: the resulting
geogrids are respectively called extruded geogrid, bonded geogrid and woven
geogrid.
Extruded geogrids are classified into the following two categories based on the
direction of stretching during their manufacture:
Uniaxial Geogrid
Biaxial Geogrid
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TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Uniaxial geogrid: A geogrid produced by the longitudinal stretching of a
regularly punched polymer sheet, and therefore it possesses a much higher
tensile strength in the longitudinal direction than the tensile strength in the
transverse direction.

Biaxial geogrid: A geogrid produced by stretching in both the longitudinal and


the transverse directions of a regularly punched polymer sheet, and therefore it
possesses equal tensile strength in both the longitudinal and the transverse
directions.

12
TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS

Uniaxial Geogrid Biaxial Geogrid Bonded Geogrid Woven Geogrid

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TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Geomembranes
It is a planar, relatively
impermeable, synthetic sheet
manufactured from materials of low
permeability to control fluid
migration in a project as a barrier or
liner.

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TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Geonet
It is a planar, polymeric product
consisting of a regular dense
network of integrally connected
parallel sets of ribs overlying similar
sets at various angles

15
TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Geocomposite
It is a term applied to the product
that is manufactured in composite
form two or more materials, of
which one at least is a geosynthetic,
which, in combination, performs
specific function(s) more effectively
than when used separately.

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TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Geocell
A three-dimensional, permeable,
polymeric honeycomb or web
structure, assembled from geogrids
and special bodkins couplings in
triangular or square cells.

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TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS

Geomat Geomes woven jute


h
Geospacer
Geopipe

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TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS

Geomat Geomesh woven jute

Geospacer
Geopipe

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ABBREVIATIONS AND GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS GEOSYNTHETICS

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BASIC CHARACTERISTICS
Excellent stress-strain behavior
Good flexibility
Excellent filtration characteristics
High water permeability
Excellent mechanical properties
Can be welded together
High resistance to climate condition, chemical and biological attack
Chemically ultraviolet stabilized
Time, cost, rapid construction, environment friendly, sustainability and durability

21
POLYMER USED IN MANUFACTURING OF GEOSYNTHETICS

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MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF GEOTEXTILE

Technology Non Woven


Warp Knitted Woven

Produced by interloping one or more Continuous filament staple fiber Monofilament, multifilament slit
fibres, yarns, filaments or other Base fibres is polyester, PP& PE film fabricated
Fabric and Raw material
elements. Base fibres is Polyester, Jute

 Warp knitted Needle Punched Weaving


Process  Warp knitted with Weft insertion Thermal bonded ,Spun bonded

Commonly used GSM  340 GSM 180-200 GSM  330 GSM

Niche applications in golf course Reinforcement, separation, Sub-grade reinforcement,


fields, geo nets for Rock fall protection Embankment are major embankments, woven geogrids
Applications applications for ballistic reinforcement
Geogrids are mainly made up of
knitted geotextile Roads, highways as separation,
paving fabric

23
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF GEOTEXTILE

WOVEN GEOTEXTILE

24
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF GEOTEXTILE

25
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF GEOTEXTILE

NEEDLE PUNCH
TECHNOLOGY

26
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF GEOGRID

The main difference between different grid


structures lies in how the longitudinal and
transverse elements are joined together.
Extruded geogrids are manufactured from
polymer sheets in two or three stages of
processing: the first stage involves feeding a
sheet of polymer, several millimeters thick, into
a punching machine, which punches out holes
on a regular grid pattern.
Following this, the punched sheet is heated
and stretched, or drawn, in the machine
direction.
27
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF GEOGRID

Woven geogrids are manufactured by weaving or knitting processes from polyester


multi-filaments. Where the warp and weft filaments cross they are interlaced at
multiple levels to form a competent junction. The skeletal structure is generally
coated with acrylic or PVC or bitumen to provide added protection against
environmental attack and construction-induced damages.

Bonded geogrids are manufactured by bonding the mutually perpendicular PP or


PET strips together at their crossover points using either laser or ultrasonic welding.
There are several bonded geogrids, which are extremely versatile, because they can
be used in isolated strip form and as multiple strips for ground reinforcement.

28
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF GEONET

Geonets are manufactured typically by an


extrusion process in which a minimum of two
sets of strands (bundles of tape-like fibres that
can be attached to each other) are overlaid to
yield a three-dimensional structure.

A counterrotating die, with a simplified


section as shown in Figure, is fed with hot
plastic by a screw extruder. Rotating Die

29
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF GEOMEMBRAIN

Most of the geomembranes are made in a plant


using one of the following manufacturing
processes: (i) extrusion, (ii) spread coating or
(iii) calendering.

Calendering is the most frequently used


manufacturing process in which a heated
polymeric compound is passed through a series
of heated rollers of the calender, rotating under
mechanical or hydraulic pressure

30
FUNCTION OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Geosynthetics have numerous application areas in civil engineering. They
always perform one or more of the following basic functions when used in
contact with soil, rock and/or any other civil engineering-related material

Separation Protection Reinforcement Drainage

Filtration Waterproofing

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FUNCTION OF GEOSYNTHETICS

32
FUNCTION OF GEOSYNTHETICS
In many geosynthetic applications, especially in roads, rail tracks, shallow
foundations, and embankments, a geosynthetic layer is placed at the interface of soft
foundation soil and the overlying granular layer shown in figure.

In such a situation, it becomes a difficult task to identify the major function of
reinforcement and separation. Nishida and Nishigata (1994) have suggested that the
separation can be a dominant function over the reinforcement function when the ratio
of the applied stress on the sub grade soil to the shear strength (cu) of the subgrade
soil has a low value (less than 8) shown in the figure.

33
FUNCTION OF GEOSYNTHETICS

A loaded geosynthetic-reinforced granular fill– Relationship between the separation and the reinforcement functions
soft soil system. (after Nishida and Nishigata, 1994).

34
FUNCTION OF GEOSYNTHETICS

35
FUNCTION OF GEOSYNTHETICS

36
APPLICATION OF GEOSYNTHETICS

37
APPLICATION OF GEOSYNTHETICS

38
APPLICATION OF GEOSYNTHETICS

39
APPLICATION OF GEOSYNTHETICS

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PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
When to test geosynthetics?
Firstly for any project the design engineers must check the required
specifications of geosynthetic materials. Without knowing proper specifications,
it is very difficult to select the correct geosynthetic for any specific project.
It is needed to conduct tests on geosynthetics from an independent laboratory.
Generally, test results are supplied from manufacturer data sheet. These data
sheets provide minimum average roll values (MARV) for quality control of
geosynthetics.
Considering environmental impact, geosynthetics should be collected from the
project site and sent to geosynthetic laboratory for testing of their different
properties.
41
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Tests on geosynthetics are conducted in two different ways:
A) Index tests or in-isolation tests: Tests are performed only on geosynthetics itself.
B) Performance tests: Tests are performed along with site specific soil.
Properties of Geosynthetics:
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Hydraulic Properties
Endurance Properties

42
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Physical Properties
Mass per unit area (Weight)(ASTM D5261)
Five test specimens are to be weighed in a weighing machine (accuracy of 0.01 g)
and average value is recorded.
Test samples are of size 100 mm x 100 mm
Unit is expressed as g/m2
The cost of geotextile is directly related to the weight of geotextile.
Thickness(ASTM D5199)
The thickness is measured to an accuracy
of 0.02 mm under a specified pressure of 2.0 kPa.
Sample size is 200 mm x 200 mm. The thickness is generally in the range of 0.25 to
8.5 mm.
43
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Specific gravity (ASTM D 792 or D1505)
Specific gravity can be defined as ratio of the unit weight of material to the unit
weight of distilled water at 4°C.
Specific gravity of different geosynthetic materials

44
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Stiffness or Flexural Rigidity or Flexural Stiffness (ASTM D1388)
The geotextile specimen is a 25 mm wide strip.
The geotextile is placed along the length of a horizontal plane and bends
gravitationally under its own weight on a inclined plane making an angle of 41.5
degree with the horizontal.

Stiffness of the Geotextile = (l/2)3 x W


l = length of overhang geotextile
bending length = l/2 (cm),
w = mass per unit area (mg/cm2)
The unit of stiffness is mg-cm.

45
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Mechanical Properties:
Compressibility
Tensile strength test
Burst strength test
Puncture Resistance Test
Penetration resistance test (drop test)
Drop cone (impact strength) Test/
Tear (impact) resistance Test
Direct shear test
Pullout or anchorage resistance Test
46
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Compressibility: Compressibility indicates
the reduction in thickness under applied
pressure. Compressibility of geotextile
depends on its thickness and mass per unit
area.
Compressibility of woven and non-woven
heat bonded geotextile (NW-HB) is low.
Compressibility of nonwoven needle-
punched geotextile plays a very important
role as most of the time we use these type of
geotextiles to pass the liquid along their
plane.
47
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Wide width tensile strength (ASTM D4595)

Tensile strength of geotextile can be


expressed as force per unit width.

Tgeotextile = Fb/ W (kN/m)

Where,
Fb = Observed breaking force (kN)
W = Specimen width (meter)

48
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD

Effect of mass per


unit area on Tensile
strength

Effect of temperature
on Tensile strength
with different
polymer

49
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
 Grab Tensile Test (ASTM D
1682): Grab tensile strength is
required to design the geotextiles for
separation.
 When pressure is applied to the
upper stone, it spreads the two lower
stones laterally.
 As a result, tension is mobilized in
the geotextile. It is analogous to the
grab tensile strength test.

50
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Trapezoidal tear strength test
(ASTM D4533)
This test is done to tear the test
specimen from the point of
incision.
Tear strength is important when
the geosynthetic is damaged.
 Trapezoidal tear strength is
measured in N.

51
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Burst strength test
Burst strength is required to
design the geotextiles for
separation.
The geotextile may burst due to
the applied upward load.

52
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Static Puncture Strength Test: a
circular geosynthetic specimen is gripped
without tension around its entire
circumference between two steel clamping
rings in a loading frame.
A flat-ended cylindrical steel plunger
attached to the load indicator is forced
through the centre of the test specimen and
perpendicular to it at a constant rate of
displacement (generally 50 mm/min.) until
rupture of the specimen occurs shown in
figure.
53
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
The impact strength (dynamic puncture strength) of the geosynthetics can
be evaluated by cone drop test method.

This test involves the determination of the diameter of the punctured hole
made by dropping a standard brass or stainless steel cone weighing 1 kg from a
specified height onto the surface of a circular geosynthetic specimen gripped
between clamping rings shown in figure.

The diameter of the punctured hole, measured using a penetration measuring


cone shown in figure, in combination with the drop height, gives a measure of
impact resistance (strength).

54
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD

Impact strength (dynamic puncture strength) test: (a) typical test arrangement; (b) penetration measuring cone.

55
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Direct Shear Test: the shear resistance
between a geosynthetic and a soil is
determined by placing the geosynthetic
and soil within a direct shear box, about
300 mm square in plan, divided into upper Details of direct shear test.
and lower halves Shown in Figure.
 The shear force is recorded as a
function of the horizontal displacement of
the upper half of the shear box with
constant normal stress.
 Draw the normal stress vs shear stress
graph shown in figure.
56
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Pullout Test: a Geosynthetic specimen,
embedded between two layers of soil in a rigid
box, is subjected to a horizontal force, keeping
the normal stress applied to the upper layer of
soil constant and uniform.
Figure shows depicts the general test Details of Pullout test.
arrangement of the pullout test.
The force required to pull the geosynthetic
out of the soil is recorded.

57
PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD
Pullout resistance is calculated by dividing the maximum load by the test
specimen width.
 The pullout resistance versus normal stress plot is a function of soil.

where, Le is the embedment length of the test specimen;


W is the width of the test specimen;
σn is the effective normal stress at the soil–test specimen interfaces;
Ci is the coefficient of interaction
F is the pullout resistance (or friction bearing interaction) factor.

58
REINFORCED EARTH
Concept of Reinforced Earth:
When soil and geosynthetic
Without
reinforcement are combined, a
Geosynthetics
composite material, ‘Reinforced Earth’,
possessing high compressive and
tensile strength is produced.

In this process, the geosynthetic acts


as a tensioned member coupled to the
soil/fill material by friction, adhesion, With
interlocking or confinement and thus Geosynthetics
maintains the stability of the soil mass
shown in figure.
59
REINFORCED EARTH FOUNDATION
 Binquet and Lee’s Method:
Based on the results and
observations of the reduced-scale
laboratory model tests,

Binquet and Lee (1975b) identified


three possible failure mechanism
of reinforced soil foundation
depending on the tensile strength
and configuration of
reinforcement.
60
REINFORCED EARTH FOUNDATION
• It is cleared that there can be failure due to the following reason .
 Breaking of the ties ;
 Frictional Pull out of the ties ;
The developed tie force in any layer of reinforcement (TD):
TD ≤ (Ry/Fsy, Tf/FSy)
Where ,
Ry = Yield resistance of tie layer.
Tf = The frictional pullout resistance of tie layer.
Fsy = Factor of safety.

61
REINFORCED EARTH FOUNDATION
By considering pull-out failure and
tension failure, Binquet and Lee
(1975b) proposed a design method for
strip footing on sand.

 According to Binquet and Lee


method, the stress distributions within Stress distributions below strip footing and failure mechanism
(After Binquet and Lee, 1975b)
the soil are shown in Figure which are
assumed to be independent of whether
or not soil is reinforced

62
REINFORCED EARTH FOUNDATION
After deformation, the reinforcement at the boundary points was assumed to
take the shape as shown in the Figure.

Components of forces in unreinforced and reinforced soil


(After Binquet and Lee, 1975b)

63
REINFORCED EARTH FOUNDATION
 Using the Boussinesq’s solution, Binquet and Lee (1975b) derived the
following relation for the Tie force, Tt(Z,N), developing at any depth, z:

Where,
z is the depth of reinforcement;
N is the number of reinforcement layers;
I and J are dimensionless force Shown in figure.

64
REINFORCED EARTH FOUNDATION
They also expressed allowable tensile resistance, Ry, and the pullout
resistance, Tf of the reinforcement as follow:

where,
w is the width of a single tie;
t is the thickness of a single tie;
NR is the number of ties per unit length of strip footing;
fy is breaking strength.

65
REINFORCED EARTH FOUNDATION

 The product of w and NR is called the linear density of reinforcement


(LDR).

Where,
f is allowable soil-tie coefficient of friction;
= (tanφf / FSf );
φf is the soil-tie friction angle;
FSf is the factor of safety for the pullout.

66
REINFORCED EARTH WALL
The design of geosynthetic-reinforced earth retaining walls is consists of two
parts:

Internal stability analysis:The analysis is mainly aimed at determining


tension and pullout resistance in the geosynthetic reinforcement, length of
reinforcement, and integrity of the facing elements.

External stability analysis: The overall stability of the geosynthetic-


reinforced soil mass is checked including sliding, overturning, load-bearing
capacity failure, and deep-seated slope failure.

67
REINFORCED EARTH WALL
According to Rankine active earth pressure theory, the active earth pressure, σa,
at any depth z is given by:

where, Ka is the Rankine earth pressure coefficient,

γb is the unit weight of the granular backfill

68
REINFORCED EARTH WALL
The factor of safety against the geotextile rupture at any depth z may be
expressed as

where σG is the allowable geotextile strength in kN/m, and


Sv is the vertical spacing of the geotextile layers at any depth z in metre.
FS(R) is equal to 1.3 to 1.5

69
REINFORCED EARTH WALL
The geotextile layer at any depth, z, will fail by pullout if the frictional
resistance developed along its surfaces is less than the force to which it is being
subjected.
This type of failure occurs when the length of geotextile reinforcement is not
sufficient to prevent its slippage with respect to the soil.
 The factor of safety against the geosynthetic pullout at any depth z may be
expressed as

where φr is the angle of shearing resistance of soil–geosynthetic interface and


it is approximately equal to 2φb/3.

70
REINFORCED EARTH WALL
The magnitude of the FS(P) is generally taken to be 1.3–1.5. Using above
equation.

The length, lr, of geotextile layer within the Rankine failure zone can be
calculated as:

The total length of the geotextile layer at any depth z is

71
REINFORCED EARTH WALL
If the wraparound facing is to be provided, then the lap length can be
determined using the following expression:

72
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
These govern the behaviour of soils subjected to dynamic loading.
Dynamic soil properties such as shear wave velocity, modulus reduction and
damping characteristics of local soils are the basic and essential input
parameters for conducting even a preliminary ground response analysis.

Many problems involve the knowledge of following dynamic properties of


soil :
Dynamic bearing capacity of foundation.
Response of machine foundation subjected to cyclic loading.
Soil structure interaction during propagation of stress wave generated due to
an earthquake.
Earthquake resistance of dams and embankments.
73
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
Methods to evaluate dynamic properties of soil:

Cyclic Plate load test

 Block Vibration Test

 Cyclic Triaxial test

Wave Propagation Test

74
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
Cyclic Plate load test:
The equipment for the test shall be assembled according to the details given in
IS 1888 : 1982.

The plate shall be located at a depth equal to the: depth of the proposed
foundation in a pit excavated1 as given in IS 1888 : 1982.

 In this test, the cycles of loading, unloading and reloading are continued till
the estimated ultimate load has been reached, the final values of dial gauge
readings being noted each time.

75
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
The load intensity versus
elastic rebound shall be plotted
as shown in Figure.
The value of Cu, shall be
calculated from the equation
given below:
Cu = P/Se kgf/cm3
Where
P = Corresponding load
intensity kg/cm2,
Se= Elastic rebound
corresponding to P in cm.
76
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
Block Vibration Test:
A test pit of suitable size depending upon size of block should be made. For the
size of the pit may be 3 m x 6 m at the bottom and a depth preferably equal to
proposed depth of foundations.

The test should be conducted above the ground water table. In case of rock, the
test may be performed on the surface of rock bed itself. The bottom of the pit
should be level and horizontal.

The size of the block should be selected depending upon the sub-soil conditions.
In ordinary soils it may be 1 m x 1 m x 1.5 m and in dense soils it may be 0.75
m x 0.75 m x 1 m.
77
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL

78
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
The coefficient of elastic uniform In case of vertical vibration test, the
compression (Cu) of soil is given value of damping coefficient ε of
by the following equation. soil is given by the following
equation.

79
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
Wave Propagation Tests :
The wave propagation tests for determination of shear modulus may be
conducted by making seismic waves to pass through the ground by impact of a
hammer and determining the time of travel of these waves between two points at
a known distance apart or by measuring the phase difference between vibration
at two pointer under steady vibrations.

80
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
The value of average velocity is obtained as:

Based On Wave propagation Test Find out G and E

81
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
Based on Wave propagation Test Find out G and
E

82
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
Cyclic Triaxial Test:
The test device consists of the standard triaxial testing equipment extended
with a cyclic axial loading unit.
In some cases, the cell pressure is also applied cyclically.
Isotropic or anisotropic initial stress conditions are possible.
The stresses and strains measured in cyclic triaxial tests can be used to obtain
the shear modulus and damping ratio.
Cyclic triaxial test is very useful in determining the liquefaction potential of
the soil.

83
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOIL
G and Damping Ratio from Cyclic Triaxial Test

E
G
21   
1 AL

4 Ar
Fig: Small cyclic triaxial test setup
Where AL is area of the hysteresis loop and Ar
is the area of the triangle .

84
THEORY OF VIBRATION
The study of vibrations is concerned with the oscillatory motion of bodies and
the forces associated with them.
Vibrations are initiated when the energy is imparted to the elastic system by an
external sources.
FREE VIBRATION SYSTEM:
System oscillates under the action of forces inherent in the system itself and in
absence of externally applied forces.
The system will vibrate at one or more of its natural frequencies, which are
properties of the dynamical system established by its mass and stiffness
distribution.
The response of a system is called free vibration when it is disturbed and then
left free to vibrate about some mean position. e.g-simple pendulum
85
THEORY OF VIBRATION
 FORCED VIBRATION:
Vibrations that take place under the excavation of external forces. When
excitation is oscillatory, the system is forced to vibrate at excitation frequency.
They result from regular(rotating or pulsating machinery) and
irregular(chemical process plant) exciting agencies. e.g- machine tools, electric
bells etc.

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THEORY OF VIBRATION

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THEORY OF VIBRATION

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THEORY OF VIBRATION

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THEORY OF VIBRATION

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