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Multi Loop &

Process Control

– Feedback Control System

– Feed Forward Control System
– Cascade Control System
– Ratio Control System
– Selective Control System
– Split-Range Control System
– Decoupling methods
Feedback Control System

– Consider the generalized process as shown

– It has output y, a potential disturbance d and available manipulated variable m
Feedback Control Action

– Measures the value of output (flow, pressure, temperature, liquid level,

composition, etc) using appropriate measuring device. Let Ym be the measured
value by sensor

– Compares the indicated value Ym to the desired value Ysp (set point) of the
output. Let deviation be (error) E = Ysp – Ym

– The value of E is supplied to the main controller, the controller in turn changes
the value of manipulated variable m in such a way as to reduce the magnitude
of the deviation E
Feedback Control Systems

Flow Control Pressure Control Liquid Level Control

Hardware Components of FCL

– Process

– Measuring Instruments or Sensors

– Transmission Lines

– Controller

– Final Control Element

Types of Feedback Controller

– Proportional Controller

– Proportional – Integral Controller

– Proportional – Integral – Derivative Controller

Proportional Controller

– Output is directly proportional to the error

C(t) = Kc*e(t) + Cs
– Kc: Controller Gain
– Cs: Controller’s bias signal
– A Proportional gain is described by the value of Kc or equivalently by its Proportional
Band PB

PB = 100 / Kc

– PB is the range over which the error must change in order to drive the actuating
signal of the controller over its full range. Usually, 1 <= PB <= 500
Proportional Controller

– When we will get Higher sensitivity of the controller?

– Transfer function of Proportional Controller

Gc(S) = Kc
Proportional – Integral
– Also known as Proportional – Plus – Reset Controller
– Its Actuating signal is given by

– Where is the Integral time constant or reset time in minutes. Usually varies
in the range 0.1 ≤ ≤ 50 min.
– Some manufacturers calibrate controller in terms of reset rate 1/
Proportional – Integral
– Why Integral controller is also called as Reset controller ?

– The integral control action has repeated

the response of proportional action
– Reset Time: Time needed by the controller
to repeat the initial proportional action
change in its output
Proportional – Integral
– The integral action causes the controller output C(t) to change as long as an
error exists in the process output. Therefore, Such a controller can eliminate
even small errors
– The Transfer function of PI controller is

– Integral Windup
Proportional – Integral
– Integral Windup / Integrator windup / reset windup
– When large change is set point occurs, the integral term accumulates a
significant error during the rise (windup)

– Mainly occur during shut-down, change over, etc

– PI controller need special provisions to cope with integral windup
Proportion Integral Derivative
– Commonly known as proportional-plus-reset-plus-rate controller
– The output of this controller is

– Where is derivative time constant in minutes.

– The derivative term de(t)/dt anticipates what the error will be in the immediate
future and applies a control action. So, Derivative controller is known as
anticipatory control
Proportion Integral Derivative
Major drawbacks of derivative control action
– For a response with constant nonzero error it gives no control action since
de(t)/dt = 0
– For noisy response with almost zero error its can compute large derivatives and
thus yield large control action, although it is not needed.

The transfer function of PID controller is

Feedback Controller


– It does not require identification and measurement of any disturbances.

– It is insensitive to modelling errors

– It is insensitive to parameter changes

Feedback Controller


– Corrective action after the disturbance has affected the output.

– Perfect control is impossible

– Nothing can be done about known process disturbances

– It may create instability in the close loop response.

Feedforward controller

– Feedforward control configuration measures the disturbance (load) directly and

takes control action to eliminates its impact on the process output.
– So, FFC have potential for perfect control

Feedforward control action Feedback control action

Feedforward controller

– Feedforward – Anticipatory manner

– Feedback control action – Compensatory manner

Common Feedforward controller

– Objective is to keep exit temperature of liquid is


– Two disturbance (load)

– Liquid flow rate (FT)
– Liquid inlet temperature (TT)

– Manipulating variable is steam flow rate

Designing feedforward controller
Designing feedforward controller
Designing feedforward controller
Feedforward Controller


– Acts before the effect of disturbance has been felt by the system

– It is good for slow systems or with significant dead time

– It does not introduce instability in the close loop response

Feedforward Controller


– Requires identification of all possible disturbances & their direct measurement

– Can not cope with unmeasured disturbances

– Sensitive to process parameter variations

– Requires good knowledge of process model

Feedforward-Feedback Control
Feedforward-Feedback Control

– From figure

– Characteristic equation is

– The stability characteristics of a feedback system will not change with the
addition of feedforward loop
Ratio Control

– It is a special type of Feedforward control where two disturbances (loads) are

measured and held in a constant ratio to each other.

– Widely used for maintaining

– Composition
– Fuel/air ratio in burners
– Ratio of flow rates of two streams
Ratio Control Configuration

Configuration I
– Measure both flow rates & take
their ratio (Actual ratio)
– Compare actual ratio with
desired ratio, error signal
– Actuating signal is generated in
reference to error signal
– Wild stream & Controllable
Ratio Control Configuration

Configuration II
– Flow rate of wild stream is measured &
multiplied with desired ratio
– The result is actual value of controllable
stream (set point)
– Actual value of controllable stream is
then compared with set point & error
signal generated
– Actuating signal is the generated in
reference to error signal
Things to Think About

– Is driving a car is mostly Feedforward or

Feedback? What about riding a bicycle?

– Why does the addition of feedback control

increase the performance of Feedforward
Control Systems with Multiple
– Feedback Control configuration: One
Measurement & One manipulated

– Which control configuration for

one/more measurement & more than
one manipulated variable???
Control Systems with Multiple
– Control configuration with one measurement & more than one manipulated

1. Cascade Control

2. Selective Control

3. Split-range Control
Cascade Control

– Control Configuration with One manipulated Variable & more than one

– With Single manipulated variable, only one Output can be controlled

– Case Study:
– Objective is to keep reaction temperature of
reacting mixture T constant
– Disturbances are Ti & Tc
– Manipulating variable is only Fc
Cascade Control

Simple Feedback Control

– One measurement (Ti) & One

manipulating variable (Fci)

– Very effective in compensating for

changes in Ti & less effective in
compensating for changes in Tc
Cascade Control

Cascade Control
– Two measurement (T & Tc) & One
manipulated variable (Fc)
– Control action taking place before Tc effect
has been felt by the reacting mixture
– Tc increases  Fc increases & vice versa
– Two control loops with two different
measurements T & Tc, but sharing common
manipulated variable Fc
Cascade Control

– The loop that measures T (Controlled

variable) is the dominant / primary / master
control loop & uses set point supplied by

– The loop that measures Tc, uses the output of

the primary controller as its set point and is
called the secondary / slave control loop
Cascade Control

– Cascade control block diagram for CSTR example

Cascade Control

– Close loop behavior of Cascade control system

– Open loop TF of secondary loop

– Open loop TF of primary loop

– CR equation for primary loop is

Cascade Control

1. Two controllers of cascade control system are standard feedback controller

(P, PI, PID). Generally P controller is used for secondary loop.

2. The dynamics of secondary loop are much faster than those of primary loop.
i.e. Phase lag of secondary loop < phase lag of primary loop
i.e. The cross over frequency of secondary loop is > that of primary loop
Selective Control System

– One manipulated variable & several Controller output (output variables)

– Manipulating variable is controlled by one output variable at a time

– Selective control configuration transfers control action from one controlled output
to another according to need.

– Mainly Two types

1. Override control
2. Auctioneering control
Override Control

– During normal operation of plant or during startup / shut down, it is possible that
dangerous situation may arises.

– In such cases it is necessary to transfer control action from normal operation to

prevent process variable from exceeding an allowable upper or lower limit.

– LSS: Low selector switch (used to prevent a process variable from exceeding a lower
– HSS: High selector switch (used to prevent a process variable from exceeding a
higher limit)
Override Control

– Override control to protect boiler

– loop 1 to control steam pressure &
– Loop 2 to control liquid level in the
– Whenever liquid level falls below
allowable limit, LSS switches the
control action from pressure control
to level control & closes the valve
on discharge line
Auctioneering Control System

– Catalytic tubular reactors control with auctioneering

control configuration
– Several exothermic reactions takes place along the
length of tubular reactor

– Hot spot – Highest temperature

– The primary control objective is to keep hot spot

temperature below an upper limit.
Auctioneering Control System

– For that purpose, we need a control system that

can identify the location of the hot spot & provide
the proper control action.

– Can be achieved by placing several Thermocouples

along the length of tubular reactor

– Auctioneering control system then identifies the

location of hot spot & control the flow rate of
Split Range Control

– One measurement (controlled output) & more than one manipulated variable

– Only one controlled output, so we have only one control signal

– This single control signal split into several parts, each affecting one of the
available manipulations
Split Range Control

– Steam header with Split-Range control

– Control Objective: Maintain constant

steam pressure in steam header

– Manipulated variables: All boiler

connected to steam header

– Control action from PC split to adjust

steam flow from boiler
Split Range Control

– Air to Open Acid valve

operating range of 9 to
15 PSI

– Air to Close Caustic valve

operating range of 9 to 3
Split Range Control
Things to Think About

– Consider a process with one manipulated input and two measured outputs, can
you keep both outputs at the desired values using only the single manipulated
variable? If not, explain why???

– Are the stability characteristics of the close loop response of cascade system
better than those of a simple feedback?