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Presented By :- Soumen Gorai

Branch :- Power System
ID NO. – RA1812019010007
1. Introduction
2. Power Quality Problems In Grid Connected Renewable Energy Sources
3. Power Quality issues
4. Power Factor Correction
5. Grid Connected PV Generation System
6. Cyber Security and Privacy Issues in Grids
7. Smart Fault Location for Grids
8. Conclusion
9. Reference
• Electrical power systems were traditionally characterized by the presence of numerous utilities,
heterogeneous standards, overlapping territories, and a general lack of integration. To foster
sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy
targets for their electricity supply.
• Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy
(VRE) to the grid. The significant benefits associated with grids have led to vast efforts to expand
their penetration in electric power systems.
• A grid integration study is an analytical framework used to evaluate a power system with high
penetration levels of variable renewable energy. A grid integration study simulates the operation of
the power system under different VRE scenarios, identifying reliability constraints and evaluating
the cost of actions to those constraints. When considering grid integration policymakers, regulators,
and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics:
• New renewable energy generation
• New transmission
• Increased system flexibility
• Planning for a high renewable energy future
Power Quality Problems In Grid Connected
Renewable Energy Sources:
• Power Quality has become very important issue over the last decade. A key
reason for the increasing importance is the rapid spread of the use of
equipments sensitive to power system disturbances and the widespread use
of nonlinearly behaving power electronic converters. The addition of wind
Turbines and PV generation system can have a significant effect and
increases the complexity of this problem. Depending on the grid
configuration and the type of wind turbine and solar panel used different
power quality problems may arise.
• There are certain challenges in the integration of wind and solar systems
with grid directly. For grid connection of renewable energy sources we use
Grid Integration – Grid-tie Inverter. The use of Inverter is to take energy
from grid when renewable energy is insufficient, and supply energy when
more power is generated. The connection of grid with renewable energy and
disconnection is done in 100ms.
Block Diagram for Grid connected PV Array

Block Diagram for Grid connected Wind Turbine

Power Quality issues:
[1] Harmonics

• The unwanted sinusoidal signal or noise generated by power electronic devices used in
power system creates harmonics . Harmonics are currents or voltages with frequencies
that are integer multiples of the fundamental power frequency.
• Electrical appliances and generators all produce harmonics and in large volumes results in
a number of power quality problems.
• Most grid-connected inverters for DG applications put out very low levels of harmonic
current, and because of their distribution on the network are unlikely to cause harmonic
issues, even at high penetration levels.
• While the most common type of inverters (current-source) can not provide the harmonic
support required by the grid, voltage-source inverters can, but do so at an energy cost and
there are a variety of harmonic compensators that are likely to be cheaper. Labeling that
identifies the type of inverter (voltage or current source) would help purchase of voltage
source or current source inverters as required, as would financial compensation for
reducing energy losses if voltage source inverters are installed.
[2] Frequency and Voltage Fluctuations

• Voltage and frequency fluctuations, which are caused by un-

controllable variability of renewable energy resources. Frequency and
voltage fluctuation again classified as:-
1. Grid-derived voltage fluctuations
2. Voltage imbalance
3. Voltage rise and reverse power flow
4. Power factor Correction
(i) Grid-Derived Voltage Fluctuations
• Inverters are generally configured to operate in grid ‘voltage-following’
mode and to disconnect DG when the grid voltage moves outside set
parameters, This is both to help ensure they contribute suitable power
quality as well as help to protect against unintentional islanding.
• Where there are large numbers of DG systems or large DG systems on a
particular feeder, their automatic disconnection due to the grid voltage being
out of range can be problematic because other generators on the network
will suddenly have to provide additional power . To avoid this happening,
voltage sag tolerances could be broadened and where possible, Low Voltage
Ride-through Techniques (LVRT) could be incorporated into inverter
design. LVRT allows inverters to continue to operate for a defined period if
the grid voltage is moderately low but they will still disconnect rapidly if
the grid voltage drops below a set level. Inverters can also be configured to
operate in ‘voltage-regulating’ mode, where they actively attempt to
influence the network voltage.
• Utility staff may also need to be trained regarding integration of such
inverters with other options used to provide voltage regulation - such as
(ii)Voltage Imbalance
• Voltage imbalance is when the magnitude of each phase voltage is
different in a three-phase system or the phase difference is not exactly
120°. Single phase systems installed disproportionately on a single
phase may cause severely unbalanced networks leading to damage to
controls, transformers, DG, motors and power electronic devices.
Thus, at high PV penetrations, the cumulative size of all systems
connected to each phase should be as equal as possible. All systems
above a minimum power output level of between 5-10kW typically
should have a balanced three phase output.
(iii)Voltage Rise and Reverse Power Flow
• Traditional centralized power networks involve power flow in one
direction only: from power plant to transmission network, to
distribution network, to load. In order to accommodate line losses,
voltage is usually supplied at 5-10% higher than the nominal end use
voltage. Voltage regulators are also used to compensate for voltage
drop and maintain the voltage in the designated range along the line.
(iv)Power Factor Correction
• Because of poor power factor line losses increases and voltage regulation become difficult. Inverters
configured to be voltage-following have unity power factor, while inverters in voltage-regulating mode
provide current that is out of phase with the grid voltage and so provide power factor correction. This can be
either a simple fixed power factor or one that is automatically controlled by, for example, the power system
• To provide reactive power injection while supplying maximum active power, the inverter size must be
• The provision of reactive power support comes at an energy cost, and how the VAr compensation is valued
and who pays for the energy has generally not been addressed.
• Simple reactive power support can probably be provided more cost-effectively by SVCs or STATCOMS,
which have lower energy losses, however inverter VAr compensation is infinitely variable and has very fast
response times. In areas where rapid changes in voltage are experienced due to large load transients (eg.
motor starts) then an inverter VAr compensator may be justified.
• While this sort of reactive power compensation is effective for voltage control on most networks, in fringe of
grid locations system impedances seen at the point of connection are considerably more resistive, and so VAr
compensation is less effective for voltage control. In these situations, real power injection is more effective
for voltage regulation.
Grid Connected PV Generation System
• As shows the configuration of the grid-
connected PV /Battery generation system. PV
array and battery are connected to the common
dc bus via a DC-DC converter respectively,
and then interconnected to the ac grid via a
common DC/AC inverter. Battery energy
storage can charge and discharge to help
balance the power between PV generation and
loads demand. When the generation exceeds
the demand, PV array will charge the battery
to store the extra power, meanwhile, when the
generation is less than the demand, the battery
will discharge the stored power to supply
loads. Each of PV system, battery energy
storage system and the inverter has its
independent control objective, and by
controlling each part, the entire system is
operating safely.
Boost Circuit and Its Control
• For two-stage PV generation
system, boost chopper circuit is
always used as the DC/DC
converter. Since the output voltage
of PV cell is low, the use of boost
circuit will enable low-voltage PV
array to be used, as a result, the
total cost will be reduced. A
capacitor is generally connected
between PV array and the boost
circuit, which is used to reduce
high frequency harmonics. Figure
is the configuration of the boost
circuit and its control system
Grid Connected Solar Energy System with
Shunt APF
• Renewable energy source (RES) integrated at distribution level is termed
as distributed generation (DG). The utility is concerned due to the high
penetration level of intermittent RES in distribution systems as it may pose
a threat to network in terms of stability, voltage regulation and power-
quality issues. Therefore, the DG systems are required to comply with
strict technical and regulatory frameworks to ensure safe, reliable and
efficient operation of overall network. With the advancement in power
electronics and digital control technology, the DG systems can now be
actively controlled to enhance the system operation with improved PQ at
PCC. However, the extensive use of power electronics based equipment
and non-linear loads at PCC generate harmonic currents, which may
deteriorate the quality of power.
Maximum power tracking devices :

2 3

1 4

6 7
Cyber Security and Privacy Issues in Grids:
• Grid has emerged as the next-generation power grid via the convergence of power
system engineering and information and communication technology. Its bi-
directional communication and electricity flow enable both utilities and customers
to monitor, predict, and manage energy usage. It also advances energy and
environmental sustainability through the integration of vast distributed energy
• Basically six types of attacks have been seen in grids: device attack, data attack,
privacy attack, network availability attack, Anomaly Detection, Dispatching &
Management etc.
• Possible Solutions for these attacks are establish electric vehicle standards,
improve security of hardware and software ,upgrades ensure the integrity of meter
data, ensure all commands and log files are accurate and secure, use a common
time reference for time synchronization, minimize and make predictable timing
impacts of security protections, use phasor measurement units (PMUs) to ensure
accurate time information, Design a bypass for emergency while remaining secure
in daily operations. Cyber security and privacy issues in the grid are new areas in
the fields of power industry, electrical engineering, and computer science. More
in-depth research is required to develop such a promising power grid in the near
Smart Fault Location for Grids:
• Fault location is an important application among intelligent monitoring and outage management
tasks used for realization of self-healing networks, one of the most attractive features of grids .It
has always served an important role in facilitating quick repair and restoration of faulted
transmission lines or distribution feeders.
• Some common fault are: Transmission Line Fault Location, Distribution Feeder Fault Location.
Transmission lines may generally be exposed to several types of faults which are generally caused
by random and unpredictable events such as lighting, short circuits, overloading, equipment failure,
aging, animal/tree contact with the line etc.
• A smart scheme to locate transmission line faults is proposed to deal with the selection of an
optimal fault location method. It is capable of using different fault location algorithm depending on
the availability and location of recorded data as well as network topology and circumstances
surrounding faults.
• Fault location in distribution systems, is an important function for outage management and service
restoration directly impacting feeder reliability and quality of the electricity supply for the
customer. Improving customer average interruption duration index (CAIDI) and system average
interruption duration index (SAIDI) is possible by exploiting a suitable fault location method. A
suitable fault location method has to consider the limitation of the host processing platforms and
requirements of the algorithm itself.
• In this presentation, some issues related to grid integration of RES and their possible solutions
available in the literature have been presented. Grid penetration is currently growing across the
globe, leading to various challenges and opportunities. This paper attempted to provide a review of
the state of the art in research on grids, hence paving the way for interested educators, researchers,
and developers in gaining insight into this important and timely topic and understand a variety of
grid-associated issues under investigation by the research community. The review comprised of an
introduction to grids, their components and associated benefits, and a review of applications in
enhancing grid performance, which further followed by studies on grids economics, operation,
control, protection, and communications.
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Systems for Grid Integration of Renewable Energ Resources",IEEENetwork,pp22-
29,September/October 20 II.

[2] Fazeli Meghdad, Asher M. Greg, Klumpner Christian,and Yao Liangzhong,

"Novel Integration of DFIG-Based Wind GeneratorsWithin Micro-grids", IEEE
Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.26, no. 3, pp 840-850, September 2011.

[3] Bakos G.c., "Distributed power generation: "A case study of small scale PV
power plant in Greece", Applied Energy, vol. 86, pp 1757-1766, February 2009. A
Etxeberria, 1. Vechiu, A Etxeberria, JM. Vinassa,H.Camblong, "Hybrid Energy
Storage Systems for Renewable Energy Sources Integration in Micro-grids: A
Review", International Power Electronics Conference (IPEC), pp 532-537,
September 2015.