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GRADE 7 SCIENCE

Separating Solutions
Page 277
REMEMBER...
 Something is a MIXTURE if it contains
two (or more) substances that are not
chemically joined together.

 The substances in a mixture can often be


easily separated from one another.

A PURE substance only contains one


material and so cannot be separated in
any way (unless a chemical reaction takes
place).
DIFFERENT SEPARATION TECHNIQUES

 Arethere mixtures that can


not be separated?

 Arethere mixtures in and


around your home that you
do not want to separate?

 Why can one mixture be


separated with a filter while
another can not?
Because of Particle size and the
type of mixture!
DIFFERENT METHODS TO SEPARATE MIXTURES
9 –1 A P. 279

How you would separate


the following mixtures…
 Salt water
 Muddy water
 Nuts and bolts
Salt water
 Evaporation
Used as a separation method when parts of the mixture have
different boiling points.
When salty water is warmed the water evaporates leaving
behind crystals of salt.

Muddy water
 Filtration
Used when there is a liquid and solid parts to the mixture.

Nuts and bolts


 Mechanical sorting.
- Floating
- Magnetism (the magnet sticks to the iron but not to the sand)
- Using your hands!
http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=bHP1HQHAQrw
SEPARATION OF MIXTURES OCCUR IN
MANY BRANCHES OF SCIENCE:

 Food science
 Tea bags

 Chemistry

 Water softeners
 Engineering

 Oil and gas


filters
 Lifescience
 Bogs
THERE ARE COMMON SEPARATION TECHNIQUES
USED TO SEPARATE THE COMPONENTS OF A VARIETY
OF MIXTURES.

 Straining spaghetti
in a colander.

 Skimming fat off


soup.

 Drying clothes (water


from fabric)

 Window screens (air


in bugs out)

 Making coffee using


ground coffee beans
SEPARATION TECHNIQUES IN THE
HOME:

Mixtures that exist in the


home:
 dust from carpet
 water from clothes
 rocks from topsoil
 cigarette smoke from air
 __________________________
CHOOSE THE APPROPRIATE SEPARATION
TECHNIQUE

Technique Solvent Solute Process

Colander water Spaghetti Filtration

Clothes dryer Water Clothes Evaporation

Window screen Air Bugs Filtration

Coffee percolators Water Coffee beans Filtration

Vacuum cleaners Carpet Dust Filtration

Skimming fat from soup Soup Fat Floatation

Refining oil Water Oil Distillation

Toxic screen Blood Alcohol Chromatography

Separating Sand Iron fillings Magnetism

Drinking apparatus Water Salt Distillation


IN CLASS ACTIVITY
SEPARATING MIXTURES
AND SOLUTIONS
 Separating heterogeneous mixtures
1. Mechanical sorting
a) Magnetism
b) Floatation
2. Filtration
 Separating homogeneous mixtures
1. Evaporation
2. Distillation
 Separating a solution by paper chromatography
SEPARATING HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES
Heterogeneous mixture: a combination of
two or more different types of matter that
retain their own properties that can be
detected quite easily.

1. Mechanical sorting
 Floatation
 Magnetism

2. Filtration
SEPARATING
HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES
1. Mechanical Sorting:
Used to separate the parts
of a mixture based on
properties such as particle
size.
Ex: floatation & magnetism
magnetism floatation
FILTRATION:
A common way to
separate solid particles
from a mixture

The filters can have


holes of varying sizes…
small to microscopic.
EXAMPLES OF FILTRATION
 Wood chips and
water
 Styrofoam
particles and
water
 Sand and water
 Cornflakes and
water/or milk
 Water and stones
(pebbles)
Coffee filter Oil filter

Colander
Furnace filter
IN CLASS ACTIVITY
 P. 281 reading check
SEPARATING HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES
P.282

Homogeneous mixture: a
combination of two or more
different types of matter that
appear to be the same throughout
the mixture and have the same
properties.
1. Evaporation
2. Distillation
EVAPORATION:
Change of state from a liquid
to a gas.
Liquid (solvent) evaporates
to recover a solid solute from
a solution.
 Salt(solute) and water (solvent)
 Sugar (solute)and water (solvent)
DISTILLATION:
 Is a method that you can use to
separate and recover a single solute
and a single solvent from a solution.
 Uses the property of the boiling point
to separate two components of a
solution (solvent and solute)
 Uses two changes of state: evaporation
and condensation (collect solvent)
 Example: (1)alcohol from water &(2) salt from water
DISTILLATION
 The solution is heated until it reaches the
solvent boiling point.
 The solvent changes state to become a gas and
evaporates .
 The gas is then collected in the condenser, and
cooled.
 While in the condenser, the gas condenses and
turns back into a liquid.
 The condensation (liquid solvent) is collected
into the receiving flask.
 The solute remains at the bottom of the flask
and is not evaporated.
Evaporation

Condensation

http://www.yout
ube.com/watch
?v=xxNfJLMNS
4E
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zW3C1RRulmg
TWO TYPES OF DISTILLATION
1. SIMPLE DISTILLATION

 Simple distillation generally


separates a single solute from
its solvent.
2. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=PYMWUz7TC3A

 Fractional
distillation
separates a
mixture of
liquids based
on their
varying boiling
points.
SEPARATING A SOLUTION BY
PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY
 Used to separate the colored substances in a mixture
such as ink.
 Used to separate the solvents in a mixture.

 How it works:
 The speed of a
dissolved substance
is carried by a
solvent through a
material such as
filter paper, that
absorbs the solutes.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8r8hN05xXk
IN CLASS ACTIVITY
 P. 284
 Questions 1-4
 P. 291
 Questions 1 – 4
 P. 300
 Questions 1 – 3, 6, 7
 Workbook
 Core Lab

 STSE