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Cleaner Bioprocesses and

Sustainable Development

Krishna Prajapati
Msc Semester – III
Dept. of Environmental Science,
K. K. Shastri Educational Campus, Ahmedabad
What is Cleaner bioprocess and Sustainable development?

 Cleaner Bioprocess or Cleaner Production is the continuous application of

an integrated biotechnology, preventive environmental strategy towards
processes, products and services in order to increase overall efficiency and
reduce damage and risks for humans and the environment.
 Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs.
The prevailing industrial development style from the last century up to the
beginning of the 1970s was characterized by production of goods and services
aimed at satisfying ever-growing consumer demands, regardless of the
consequent negative impacts on the environment.

Introduction (cont…)
Furthermore, wealth and health was enjoyed only by a minority of the world
population, while a growing percentage of it, especially in the less developed
countries, was maintained in poverty.
International concern for such a trend led to the organization of the Conference
on Environment at Stockholm by the United Nations in 1972.
After recognizing that conservation of environment was crucial for human
permanence on this planet, several actions were undertaken and stringent
environmental legislation and regulations were enacted soon afterwards, mainly
in developed countries.
The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) launched
the concept of sustainable development in 1987
Introduction (cont…)
Although many countries have adopted such a
concept as the basis of their development
programmes, studies are still in progress and have
not been fully analysed.
However, several positive international initiatives
have been associated with sustainable
development, such as the United Nations
Programme for Cleaner Production, launched in
Thus, the challenge for the next century is to
achieve a high degree of sustainability in such a
way that industrial and rural development can
grow steadily while preserving the environment
and social development can counteract poverty
by offering a better quality of life for all (Figure
1.1). Industrial development should be
sustainable and environmentally sound through
cleaner production.

Cleaner Bioprocesses
In congruence with such premises, industrial development has to change from the
degradative to the sustainable style. To meet such a purpose, adoption of cleaner
production systems is essential.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) defines the cleaner production
concept as the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy
to processes, products and services to increase eco-efficiency and reduce risks to
humansand the environment'(UNEP, 1996).
One of its distinctive features is that reduction of the quantity and toxicity of all emissions
and wastes is made before they leave the process stream. Also, the entire life cycle of the
product, from raw material extraction to the ultimate disposal of the product, is evaluated
to reduce negative impacts.
In the case of services, environmental concerns should be incorporated into design and
delivery. Eco-efficiency is a concept promoted by the Business Council for Sustainable

Cleaner Bioprocesses (Cont…)
 The cleaner production strategy may be
implemented through a sequential path (Figure
1.2) according to the specific needs and
availability of funds, always within an integrated

 It is clear that adoption of clean production

systems by industries calls for fundamental
changes, not only at the technological level but
also at the legislational level. Innovation and
adoption of clean technologies should be a
paramount target of research and development
groups world-wide.

 Cleaner bioprocesses are under intensive

research and development following the
general guidelines for cleaner production.
Cleaner Bioprocesses (Cont…)
• The most common approach has been to use enzymes as substitutes for chemical
catalysts, and enzyme applications have been introduced in the textile industry (for bio-
stonewashing of jeans), in the leather and tanning industry (for degreasing hides) in the
food industry(for production of instant coffee, amount other products and in pulp and
• Significant reduction and complete elimination of harsh chemicals may be achieved and
the cost of production reduced by saving waster and energy. fig.-1.1

Cleaner Bioprocesses (Cont…)
 The use of enzymes in the animal feed industry to  The use of enzymes in the food industry (Table
improve digestibility of raw material, mainly cereals, 1.3)allows the replacement of acid for starch
results in several relevant benefits: saving in the cost hydrolysis , with concomitant reduction in energy
of raw material, significant reduction in waste volume consumption and aggressive manifold and lower the
and reduction in the nitrogen and phosphorus content cost of production.
of the waste. Table-1.2

• Cleaner Bioprocesses and Sustainable Development by Eugenia J. Olguin

Thank You…