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IMPULSE TESTING OF

TRANSFORMERS
K. A. ARAVIND

CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE


UHV RESEARCH LABORATORY
HYDERABAD
• Insulation is one of the most important constituents of a transformer
• Transformer in service will see transient voltages in the form of lightning
and switching impulses.
• The lightning impulse, in particular, is of very short duration because of
which Capacitance of the windings has much more predominant effect
than at power frequencies.
• The voltage distribution within the winding are therefore determined by
capacitance networks, at least for the first two or three microseconds of
the impulse wave varying at the terminal.
• The capacitance network of the transformer winding assembly gives a
non-uniform voltage distribution throughout the coils.
• The highest voltage drops appear at the turns of the winding which are
closest to the impinging lightning impulse wave.
Impulse voltage distribution in transformers

Voltage at the winding element at a distance ‘x’ from the


neutral end having a voltage ‘v’ will be of the form:
v = V sinh (x/l) / sin hα
where, α = √(Cg/Cs) and
l = total length of the winding

v = V (x/l) for α = 0 Hence, the voltage gradient


dv/dx = V / l is a constant. ---- Linear distribution.
However, α varies from 5 to 15 and hence the initial voltage distribution is
considerably different from the linear
Initial Voltage distribution

Final Voltage Distribution: During the tail of the wave the final distribution of voltage is established by the
resistive elements and is usually uniform. The tail of the step voltage is equivalent to a sustained d.c.
voltage of magnitude V after the all transients have died down and the system has settled to steady state
conditions. The voltage distribution therefore becomes: v = V (x/l)
Intermediate Distribution:
•Accompanied by oscillations on account of
inductance and capacitance
• Constant interchange of stored energy between
capacitors and winding inductance resulting in
complex oscillations at a variety of natural
frequencies.
•All parts of winding may be severely stressed (i.e.
have large voltage gradients) at different instants of
time .
• Initially concentrations of voltage may appear at
the line end of the winding; during transitional
period concentrations may appear at the neutral
end voltage to earth considerably in excess of the
incident surges may develop in the main body of
winding.
Reinforcement of end turns of the winding are of little assistance as far
as the protection of windings against surge voltages is concerned.

Methods adopted to improve the initial voltage distribution

• Co-ordinated insulation on the windings where the insulation is


proportional to control and to withstand the surges which appear
across it
• Increasing Cs by interleaving winding conductors or adding capacitors
in parallel with the winding
• Neutralizing Cg by electrostatic shields
• Connecting nonlinear resistors in parallel with the winding.
• LI Wave shape 1.2 / 50 µs
•Tolerance
Peak : + 3 %
T1 : ± 30 %
T2 : ± 20 %

• SI Wave shape for


Transformers
T1 : 20 µs
Td : 200 µs
Tz : 500 µs

•Tolerance Peak : + 3 %
TEST PROCEDURE
Full wave test as per IS 2026-PART 3/ IEC 76-3 IEC : Cl. 13
• ONE REDUCED FULL WAVE(RFW)
• THREE 100% FULL WAVES(FW)

Chopped on tail IS: 2026-PART 3 ( IEC 76-3 clause: 14)


• ONE RFW
• ONE 100% FW
• ONE OR MORE RCW
• TWO 110% FCW
• TWO 100%FW
# CHOPPING TIME = 2 to 6 MICRO SECONDS
High impedance windings

T1  3.Rs.Cl

T2  0.7.Rp.Cg
Low impedance windings

For wave tail


FAILURE DETECTION VOLTAGE TRACES FOR FULL WAVE

• RAPID AND TOTAL COLLAPSE OF VOLTAGE

• PROGRESSIVE FLASHOVER IN STEPPED MANNER

• FLASHOVER OF PART OF WINDING USUALLY REDUCES THE


WAVE TAIL

• Minor faults such as breakdown of coil-to-coil or even turn-to-turn


insulation may sometimes be detected as high frequency oscillations on
the voltage oscillogram
THANK YOU