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Adolf

Hitler
The Tramp from Vienna to
the Führer of Germany
Adolf Hitler, the youth
• Son of an abusive Austrian official.
• Dropped out of high school and
moved to Vienna.
• Wanted to be an artist.
• Was denied entry into the Imperial
Art Academy(twice).
• Lived off of his dead fathers
inheritance.
• Listened to many Anti-Semitic
(anti-Jewish) speakers
Adolf Hitler, the soldier
• WWI, moved to Munich,
Germany and joined the -
.0Army.
• Was a runner and achieved
the rank of corporal.
• received two Iron Crosses
for bravery.
• Feels cheated at Germany’s
loss and blames the Weimar
Republic, the “November
Traitors”
Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party
• Hired as an internal spy by the Army
• Hitler spies on then joins the
National Socialist German Workers’
Party (Nazi)
• Nazi mimic much of the ideas of
Fascist Italy
• High unemployment rate and sky
rocketing inflation made Hitler’s
ideas very appealing to the middle
Hitler took and lower middle classes.
the party
from a few • Adopt the swastika, or hooked cross
dozen to tie his ideas to pre-history and
members the occult
to 55,000
• Established the SA or Brown Shirts,
(15,000 SA)
in 1923. Nazi thugs used to beat up foes
Beer Hall Putsch, 1923
• Inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome
• Hitler orders the Nazi to seize control of Munich,
the plan fails
• Hitler catches national attention at his trial.
• Hitler is sentence to 5 years in low security prison
• He only server 9 months
Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
• set forth Hitler’s beliefs and goals:
• Racial Purity
– Aryans = “master race” those of Germanic
decent, blond hair and blue eyes
– non-Aryans = “inferior or subhuman races”
= Jews, Slavs and Gypsies
• denouncement of the Versailles Treaty
• Lebensraum:
– living space, Hitler called for an invasion
of Russia to allow the German race to
grow
• The twin evils:
– Communism and Judaism, and he stated
that his aim was to eradicate both from
the face of the earth
New Plan • Released from jail in 1924 but
ignored because the economy
was getting better
• Legal Revolution, work with the
Right against the Left
• Nazi became a national party in
1929 and had 800,000 members
by 1932
• 1932,
– Great Depression at it worse,
– Germany 30% unemployment (6
million)
– Hitler’s Nazi Party won greatest #
of seats in the government
– Hitler is named Chancellor (Prime
Minister)
Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor
• 1933 Hoping to increase his number of
seats in the Parliament, Hitler calls a
new election.
• Six days before the elections the
Reichstag (House of Parliament) is set
on fire,
– the Nazis blame the communists (many
historians think that the Nazis set the fire)
and the Nazis win a slim majority.
• Enabling Act 1934
– With a majority Hitler asks to be given
total control of the country for 4 years
only one deputy spoke out against it.
Adolf Hitler, the Führer (leader)
Politics:
• Banned opposition parties and arrested
opposition leaders
• Created the SS (Hitler’s guards) led by
Heinrich Himmler, who arrested and
murdered hundreds, became another
Heinrich Himmler branch of the Army
• Night of the Long Knives,
– Hitler ordered the killing of many
Brown Shirts leaders (Ernst Röhm) in
order to keep the SA in line & appease
Army
• Gestapo, or secret police used brutality
and terror to keep all in line
Ernst Rohm
Economics:
• Banned Strikes and
dissolved labor unions
• Government took
control over businesses
• Started many government jobs
that put millions to work building
public works (highways aka the
autobahn, bridges, etc.) and
weapons
• By 1936 unemployment had
dropped from 6 million to 1.5
million!!!
• Hosted the 1936 Olympics (Jesse
Owens steals his thunder)
Private Lives:
• Propaganda = Press, radio,
literature, paintings and films
• Book Burning, great classics were
burned because they did not
agree with Hitler’s ideas
• Churches were forbidden to
criticize the Nazis
• Hitler Youth (boys) and League of
German Girls
• Taught violence and struggle as
part of life (Social Darwinism)
Blamed Jews
• 1% of Pop.
• Blamed for all of Germany’s
problems
• Nuremberg Laws, started in
1933, denied Jews the right to
vote and:
– ban against mixed marriages
– Kicked out of professional jobs
– Boycott of all Jewish business
Kristallnacht
• Nov 9 1938, Night of the
Broken Glass,
– Nazi mobs destroy thousands of
Jewish homes and shops