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ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

A photograph or a pictorial drawing shows an object as it appears to

the observer, but not as it is, such a picture cannot describe the
object fully no matter from which direction it is viewed.
In the industry a complete and clear description of the shape and
size of object is necessary for this to be achieved drawings are made
in orthographic projections.
This is a system of drawing used in engineering to illustrate an
object in such a way that a designer’s idea can be converted
successfully into a finished product.
Orthographic projection is:
A technical drawing method in which different views of an object
are projected on different reference planes observed perpendicular
to respective reference plane; the different Reference planes are
Horizontal Plane (HP),Vertical Frontal Plane ( VP ),Side Or Profile
Plane ( PP), the different Views are Front View (FV), Top View (TV)
and Side View (SV)
A parallel projection technique in which the plane of projection is
perpendicular to the parallel line of sight.
a system of drawing views of an object using perpendicular
projectors from the object to a plane of projectionOrthographic
a collection of 2-D drawings that work together to give an accurate
There are two methods of representing objects in orthographic
projection:
1. First angle projection
2. Third angle projection
The names first angle and third angle are derived from mathematics.
A circle is divided into four right angles thus forming four quadrants.
The first angle is from 00 to 900 in the first quadrant and the third
angle is from 1800 to 2700 in the third quadrant. Both systems of
projection, First and Third angle, are approved internationally and
have equal status. The system used must be clearly indicated on
every drawing, using the appropriate symbol, First Angle projection
is more common in Europe and Asia while Third Angle projection is
widely used in Africa,
2700 the USA and the UK.

1800 00

900
First Angle Projection
Consider the first quadrant from the figure above, the resultant
drawing of the cone would be obtained by flattening the two
perpendicular planes as shown below
Third Angle Projection
resultant drawing of the cone would be obtained by flattening the
two perpendicular planes as shown below
THIRD ANGLE ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
VIEWS
Drawing symbols for First- and Third-Angle Projection
Example of Six Principal Views in Orthographic projection

b). Object enclosed in a

glass box

c).Orthographic projections
Orthographic Exercises
The Figure shows an assembled drawing block diagram. Sketch the
front view, end view and the top view using the first angle projection
taking direction labeled A as the front and B as the end view

B
Orthographic Exercises
The Figure below shows an assembled drawing block diagram.
Sketch the front view, end view and the top view using the first
angle projection taking direction labeled A as the front and B as the
end view

B
The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,
side view and the top view using the first angle projection taking
direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

B
A completed First
angle projection
drawing.
The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,
side view and the top view using the third angle projection taking
direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

A B
The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,
end view and the top view using the third angle projection taking
direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

B
The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,
side view and the top view using the third angle projection taking
direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

A
B
The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,
side view and the top view using the third angle projection taking
direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

A
B
ISOMETRIC DRAWING
Isometric drawing is way of presenting designs/drawings in three
dimensions. In order for a design to appear three dimensional, a 30
degree angle is applied to its sides. The cubes shown below have
been drawn in isometric projection. An isometric view of an object
can be obtained by choosing the viewing direction such that the
angles between the projections of the x, y, and z axes are all the
same, or 120
AutoCAD has a command called ISOPLANE which allows you to
easily draw at a 30 degree angle as needed for
an isometric drawing. You can switch between the three 'isoplanes'
(top, right, left) by using this command or by pressing the F5 key.
Newer versions of AutoCAD have an Isoplane icon on the status bar.
AutoCAD has an isometric drawing mode that lets you drawing 3D-
looking objects in 2D just like when you draw 3D objects on a flat
sheet of paper. This means that even AutoCAD LT can draw 3D
representations
Isometric planes:
Isometric planes are basically increments of 30 degrees. When you
create an isometric drawing, "vertical" lines stay vertical, but
"horizontal" lines are drawn at either 30 degrees or 150 degrees to
give the impression of depth to the drawing. Here's
an isometric "cube": It has a 3D appearance, but really it's just 2D
lines
drafted on rotated isoplanes and symbols appear tilted along the
isometric axes. This provides the illusion of a 3D view in a 2D model.
Isometric drawings simulate a 3D object from a particular viewpoint
by aligning along 3 major axes. The Isoplane option on the Properties
palette restricts cursor movement to appropriate rotated angles
along isometric planes. You can work on one of 3 isometric planes,
each with an associated pair of axes:
•Left. Aligns symbols and lines along 90-degree and 150-degree
axes.
•Top. Aligns symbols and lines along 30-degree and 150-degree
axes.
•Right. Aligns symbols and lines along 30-degree and 90-degree
axes.
Choosing one of the 3 isometric planes causes the AutoCAD Ortho
mode and the crosshairs to be aligned along the corresponding
isometric axes in the WCS. You can switch between planes as you
draft. For example, you can start a run on the top plane, switch to
the left plane to draw a riser, and then switch to the right plane to
complete the run.
Although an isometric drawing appears to be 3D, it is actually a 2D
representation. Therefore, you cannot extract 3D distances, display
objects from different view ports, or remove hidden lines
automatically.
The isometric projection is a technique that is widely utilized in
engineering and technical drawings. It is said to be the visual
representation of three-dimensional shapes on two-dimensional
planes. Isometric projection is kind of axonometric projection where
all three coordinate axes do appear equally; also, the angle between
any two of coordinate axes is 120 degrees.
Drawing Isometric Projection from Orthographic Projection.

1st step:
Draw a rectangular prism shape with a proportional length, width
and height, a front view is determined the designer.
2nd step:
Continuous lines (object line) on a front view of orthographic
projection is re-drawn on isometric projection.
3rd step:
Continuous lines (object line) on a top view of orthographic
projection is re-drawn on isometric projection.
4th step:
Continuous lines (object line) on a side view of orthographic
projection drawn projection ,Other continuous lines on the front and
top view is completed.
5th step:
Hidden lines are drawn
Draw the Isometric Projection of the following
Orthographic projection
1st step:
To draw a rectangular prism shape with a proportional length, width
and height. a front view is determined by yourself. In this example, a
front view is shown by an arrow line

2nd step:
Continuous lines (object line) on a front view of orthographic
projection is re-drawn on isometric projection.
3rd step:
Continuous lines (object line) on a top view of orthographic
projection is re-drawn on isometric projection.

4th step:
Other continuous lines on the front and top view is completed
5th step:
Hidden lines on the right view is
drawn

A hollow part below the object is represented by continuous line B

and line C. Continuous line C has a role as the end of hollow part.
After whole lines is completed, the final object is shown below:
Draw the Isometric Projection of the following Orthographic
projection
Draw the Isometric Projection of the following Orthographic
projection
Draw the assembled drawing of the following Orthographic
projection
Draw the assembled drawing of the following Orthographic
projection
Draw the assembled drawing of the following Orthographic
projection