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Orthographic Projection Methods

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20 visualizzazioni50 pagineOrthographic Projection Methods

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the observer, but not as it is, such a picture cannot describe the

object fully no matter from which direction it is viewed.

In the industry a complete and clear description of the shape and

size of object is necessary for this to be achieved drawings are made

in orthographic projections.

This is a system of drawing used in engineering to illustrate an

object in such a way that a designer’s idea can be converted

successfully into a finished product.

Orthographic projection is:

A technical drawing method in which different views of an object

are projected on different reference planes observed perpendicular

to respective reference plane; the different Reference planes are

Horizontal Plane (HP),Vertical Frontal Plane ( VP ),Side Or Profile

Plane ( PP), the different Views are Front View (FV), Top View (TV)

and Side View (SV)

A parallel projection technique in which the plane of projection is

perpendicular to the parallel line of sight.

a system of drawing views of an object using perpendicular

projectors from the object to a plane of projectionOrthographic

a collection of 2-D drawings that work together to give an accurate

There are two methods of representing objects in orthographic

projection:

1. First angle projection

2. Third angle projection

The names first angle and third angle are derived from mathematics.

A circle is divided into four right angles thus forming four quadrants.

The first angle is from 00 to 900 in the first quadrant and the third

angle is from 1800 to 2700 in the third quadrant. Both systems of

projection, First and Third angle, are approved internationally and

have equal status. The system used must be clearly indicated on

every drawing, using the appropriate symbol, First Angle projection

is more common in Europe and Asia while Third Angle projection is

widely used in Africa,

2700 the USA and the UK.

1800 00

900

First Angle Projection

Consider the first quadrant from the figure above, the resultant

drawing of the cone would be obtained by flattening the two

perpendicular planes as shown below

Third Angle Projection

Consider the third quadrant from the quadrants figure, the

resultant drawing of the cone would be obtained by flattening the

two perpendicular planes as shown below

THIRD ANGLE ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

VIEWS

Drawing symbols for First- and Third-Angle Projection

Example of Six Principal Views in Orthographic projection

glass box

c).Orthographic projections

Orthographic Exercises

The Figure shows an assembled drawing block diagram. Sketch the

front view, end view and the top view using the first angle projection

taking direction labeled A as the front and B as the end view

B

Orthographic Exercises

The Figure below shows an assembled drawing block diagram.

Sketch the front view, end view and the top view using the first

angle projection taking direction labeled A as the front and B as the

end view

B

The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,

side view and the top view using the first angle projection taking

direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

B

A completed First

angle projection

drawing.

The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,

side view and the top view using the third angle projection taking

direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

A B

The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,

end view and the top view using the third angle projection taking

direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

B

The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,

side view and the top view using the third angle projection taking

direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

A

B

The Figure below shows an isometric diagram. Sketch the front view,

side view and the top view using the third angle projection taking

direction labeled A as the front and B as the side view

A

B

ISOMETRIC DRAWING

Isometric drawing is way of presenting designs/drawings in three

dimensions. In order for a design to appear three dimensional, a 30

degree angle is applied to its sides. The cubes shown below have

been drawn in isometric projection. An isometric view of an object

can be obtained by choosing the viewing direction such that the

angles between the projections of the x, y, and z axes are all the

same, or 120

AutoCAD has a command called ISOPLANE which allows you to

easily draw at a 30 degree angle as needed for

an isometric drawing. You can switch between the three 'isoplanes'

(top, right, left) by using this command or by pressing the F5 key.

Newer versions of AutoCAD have an Isoplane icon on the status bar.

AutoCAD has an isometric drawing mode that lets you drawing 3D-

looking objects in 2D just like when you draw 3D objects on a flat

sheet of paper. This means that even AutoCAD LT can draw 3D

representations

Isometric planes:

Isometric planes are basically increments of 30 degrees. When you

create an isometric drawing, "vertical" lines stay vertical, but

"horizontal" lines are drawn at either 30 degrees or 150 degrees to

give the impression of depth to the drawing. Here's

an isometric "cube": It has a 3D appearance, but really it's just 2D

lines

drafted on rotated isoplanes and symbols appear tilted along the

isometric axes. This provides the illusion of a 3D view in a 2D model.

Isometric drawings simulate a 3D object from a particular viewpoint

by aligning along 3 major axes. The Isoplane option on the Properties

palette restricts cursor movement to appropriate rotated angles

along isometric planes. You can work on one of 3 isometric planes,

each with an associated pair of axes:

•Left. Aligns symbols and lines along 90-degree and 150-degree

axes.

•Top. Aligns symbols and lines along 30-degree and 150-degree

axes.

•Right. Aligns symbols and lines along 30-degree and 90-degree

axes.

Choosing one of the 3 isometric planes causes the AutoCAD Ortho

mode and the crosshairs to be aligned along the corresponding

isometric axes in the WCS. You can switch between planes as you

draft. For example, you can start a run on the top plane, switch to

the left plane to draw a riser, and then switch to the right plane to

complete the run.

Although an isometric drawing appears to be 3D, it is actually a 2D

representation. Therefore, you cannot extract 3D distances, display

objects from different view ports, or remove hidden lines

automatically.

The isometric projection is a technique that is widely utilized in

engineering and technical drawings. It is said to be the visual

representation of three-dimensional shapes on two-dimensional

planes. Isometric projection is kind of axonometric projection where

all three coordinate axes do appear equally; also, the angle between

any two of coordinate axes is 120 degrees.

Drawing Isometric Projection from Orthographic Projection.

1st step:

Draw a rectangular prism shape with a proportional length, width

and height, a front view is determined the designer.

2nd step:

Continuous lines (object line) on a front view of orthographic

projection is re-drawn on isometric projection.

3rd step:

Continuous lines (object line) on a top view of orthographic

projection is re-drawn on isometric projection.

4th step:

Continuous lines (object line) on a side view of orthographic

projection drawn projection ,Other continuous lines on the front and

top view is completed.

5th step:

Hidden lines are drawn

Draw the Isometric Projection of the following

Orthographic projection

1st step:

To draw a rectangular prism shape with a proportional length, width

and height. a front view is determined by yourself. In this example, a

front view is shown by an arrow line

2nd step:

Continuous lines (object line) on a front view of orthographic

projection is re-drawn on isometric projection.

3rd step:

Continuous lines (object line) on a top view of orthographic

projection is re-drawn on isometric projection.

4th step:

Other continuous lines on the front and top view is completed

5th step:

Hidden lines on the right view is

drawn

and line C. Continuous line C has a role as the end of hollow part.

After whole lines is completed, the final object is shown below:

Draw the Isometric Projection of the following Orthographic

projection

Draw the Isometric Projection of the following Orthographic

projection

Draw the assembled drawing of the following Orthographic

projection

Draw the assembled drawing of the following Orthographic

projection

Draw the assembled drawing of the following Orthographic

projection