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1

Basics of VoIP/NGN
9/20/18

Copyright © 2016 C-DOT. All Rights Reserved


2 Evolution of Telephony
Local Loop Trunk Local Loop

Exchange Exchange

Analog Telephony

Access TAX Access

Switch Switch

Digital Telephony

Access Core Access

Router Router

Packet Telephony (e.g. VoIP)


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3 Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching

 Circuit switching
– Resources dedicated to a particular call
– Much of the time a data connection is idle
– Data rate is fixed
 Both ends must operate at the same rate

 Packet switching
– Longer messages split into series of packets
– Each packet contains a portion of user data plus some
control info
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4 Analogy b/w TDM and VoIP

TDM VoIP

Voice Data Video Storage Voice Data Video Storage

Voice IP Video Storage IP Network


(for Voice, Data & Video)
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5 Analogy Between PSTN and VoIP
PSTN VoIP
Carrier line Dedicated line for Voice – data – video on
voice the same connection
Bandwidth Fixed consumption Less bandwidth used, with
silence and compression
algorithm.
Infra cost Large Invest Less Invest
Quality High Quality High Quality
New added Hard to integrate Easy to integrate
service
Convergenc Hard to converge Easy to converge
e
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6 Components in VoIP

IP
CORE
Phon
e

SOFTSWITC
H

GATEWAYS

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9/20/18
7 Advantage of VoIP
Easy
to
converge
Lower Easier to
costs per Install
call Advantages
of
VoIP
Less Multiple
bandwidth services
Reduced
OPEX

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8 Challenges in VoIP

 Latency

 Jitter

 Packet loss

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9

NEXT GENERATION
NETWORKS

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10 Evolution of network architecture
 Circuit Switching based PSTN

SS7 SS7 SS7

Switch Switch Switch

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11 Evolution of network architecture
 Circuit Switching based PSTN + Packet Switching IP
Network

SG SG
SS7 SS7

SS SS

Switch MG MG Switch

Packet
Switching

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12 Evolution of network architecture
 Packet Switching IP Network

PE PE

Aggregator Aggregator

LAN LAN
Switc Packet SS Switch
h SS Switching

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13 Next Generation Networks (NGN)
 A packet-based network able to provide telecommunication
services and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-
enabled transport technologies and in which service-related
functions are independent from underlying transport-related
technologies

 A multi-service Network able to support Voice, Data and


Video.

 A Network with a control plane (Signaling, Control) separated


from the Transport/ Switching plane.

 A Network usingCopyright
packet mode
© 2016 C-DOT. All Rightstechnology
Reserved to transport all kind
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of information.
14 Low Power
consumption

OPEX Reliability

Centralized
OAM
Advantage of
Migration Low
Investment
per line

Modular,
CAPEX scalable
& upgradable

Migrating Path
for 4G
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15 Protocols
Call control protocol for IP telephony
 H.323 protocol family: ITU H.225, H.245
 SIP standards (IETF: rfc3261 and rfc2543)
Media Gateway Control Protocols
 MEGACO, ITU H.248 from and IETF rfc3525 or 3015,
 MGCP from IETF
Signalling Gateway Control Protocols
 ISUP and ISDN over SIGTRAN (M3UA IETF rfc3332 and
IUA.)
Call Control Protocol between MGC
 SIP-T, SIP-I, BICC(Q1912.5).
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16 Call Flow Diagram
Calling Called
SIP Server Number
number
Request: INVITE
Status: 100 Trying
Request: INVITE
Status: 100 Trying
Status: 180 Ringing
Status: 183 Session progress
Status: 200 OK
Status: 200 OK
Request: ACK
Request: ACK
MEDIA

Request: BYE
Request: BYE
Status: 200 OK
Status: 200 OK
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17 SIP - (Session Initiation Protocol)
 A communication protocol for signalling and controlling
multimedia communication sessions.
 The most common applications - Internet telephony for
voice and video calls, as well as instant messaging all over
Internet Protocol (IP) networks.
 SIP request messages:-
 REGISTER: Used by a user agent to register to the
registrar (SIP server).
 INVITE: Used to establish a media session between user
agents.
 ACK: Confirms reliable message exchanges.
 CANCEL: Terminates a pending request.
 BYE: Terminates anC-DOT.
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All Rights Reserved
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18 SIP - (Session Initiation Protocol)
 SIP response messages:-
 Provisional (1xx): Request received and being
processed.
 100 Trying, 180 Ringing, 183 Session in
Progress.
 Success (2xx): The action was successfully received,
understood, and accepted.
 200 OK.
 Client Error (4xx): The request contains bad syntax or
cannot be fulfilled at the server.
 401 Unauthorized.
 Global Failure (6xx): The request cannot be fulfilled 9/20/18
at
any server.Copyright © 2016 C-DOT. All Rights Reserved
19 RTP (Real-time Transport
Protocol)
 Network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP
networks.

 Extensively used in communication and entertainment


systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony,
video teleconference applications, television services and
web-based push-to-talk features.

 Designed for end-to-end, real-time, transfer of streaming


media.
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20 MEGACO/MGCP

 It’s a master/slave protocol used between elements of a


physically decomposed multimedia gateway i.e, Media Gateway
Controller and Media Gateway.

 It uses the port 2944 for text-encoded operation or port 2945 for
binary-encoded operation either for TCP/UDP.

 It removes intelligence from MGs from call control point of view.

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21 SIGTRAN

 Short form of signalling transport

 Developed by IETF (RFC 2719) to transport SS7 signals over IP


network

 Designed to transport information with high performance i.e. high


speed and high reliability.

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22 SIP-T/SIP-I/BICC(Q1912.5)

Protocol meant for interworking between two VoIP network

 SIP-T/I = Session Initiation Protocol–Telephony/ISUP

 SIP-T/I describes how to interwork SIP and ISUP.

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SIP
23 PHONE RTP MG

MEGACO

TDM
SIP

TDM
C5 SIP C4 SIGTRAN SG SS7 EXCHNAG
E

SIP-T/SIP-I

PSTN/PLMN
IPTAX NETWORK
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24

DEMONSTRATION

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25

THANK YOU

Feedback :- cdotmaxng@gmail.com
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