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# Group 1

EXAMPLE 6.2

## An insulated rod which it’s side having the initial

temperature distribution T(x,0)=f(x). Suddenly at (t = 0)
the both of the end of the rod is contacted with ice water so
that both ends of the rod constant at temperature 0C

## Determine the temperature inside the rod as a

function of x and t
Overall Energy Balance

## Acc  in  out  generation  consumption

Acc  in  out  0  0
 (mC  T )  (T  Tref )  (q x  x   x  q x  x ) q
 qx x  qx x x 
t t s  xC x
 ( VC  T )  (T  Tref )  (q x  x   x  q x  x )  (kAT )
 qx x  qx x x 
t t s  xC x
 ( s  xC  T ) T kA  2T
 qx x  qx x x 
t t CA x 2
 (T  Tref ) T  2
T
s  xC  qx x  qx x x 2 2
t t x
The differential Eq T 2  T
2
for heat transfer 
through the rod t x 2

Initial Condition
T ( x,0)  f ( x)
Boundary Condition
T (0, t )  0
T ( L, t )  0
The method of Variables Separation

## The method of separation of variables relies

upon the assumption that a function of the form,
T ( x, t )  F ( x).G (t )

## will be a solution to a linear homogeneous partial

differential equation in x and t.
The method of Separation Variables

Requirements =
1. Type of the problem is about the boundary value
2. The differential equation must be linier and
homogeneous
3. Boundary condition must be homogeneous
The differential Eq for heat transfer through the rod
T 2  T
2

t x 2
T 2  T
2
Homogeneous
 0
t x 2
differential equation

Initial Condition
T ( x,0)  f ( x)
So, we have fixed temperature boundary
Boundary Condition conditions (that are also homogeneous)
and an initial condition.
T (0, t )  0
T ( L, t )  0
SO,We can use separation’s variables method
STEP 1

T ( x, t )  F ( x).G (t )
The differential Eq T  2
T Subtituting T ( x, t )  F ( x).G(t )
 2

t x 2
 ( F ( x).G (t ))  2
( F ( x).G (t ))
 2

t x 2
FG '   2 F ''G
G' F ''

 G
2
F
G' F ''
 C
 G
2
F
STEP 1

' ''
G F
 C
 G F
2

' ''
G F
C C
 G
2
F
G  C G
' 2
F  CF  0
''
F ''  CF  0 Homogeneous differential eq.

F  e mx
F '  memx
F ''  m 2 e mx

## For C>0 F ''  CF  0

m 2 e mx  Cemx  0
y H  K1e  K2e
m1 x m2 x
e mx ( m 2  C )  0
m2  C  0
m2  C F ( x)  K1e Cx
 K 2e Cx

m1 C
m2   C
STEP 1

For C>0
F ( x)  K1e Cx
 K 2e Cx

## From the boundary condition, we get

T (0, t )  0
 Cx
T ( L, t )  0
F ( x )  K1e Cx
 K 2e
0  K1e C0
 K 2e  C0 F ( x)  K1e Cx
 K 2e  Cx

0  K1e 0  K 2 e  0
0  K1e CL
 K 2e  CL
1
0  K1e 0  K 2
e0
1
0  K1 (1)  K 2
(1)
SO,
K1  0
0  K1  K 2 TRIVIAL
K2  0
F ''  CF  0 Homogeneous differential eq.

F  e mx
F '  memx
F ''  m 2 e mx
Because m1=m2
For C=0

F ''  0
yH  K1e  K 2 ( x )e
m1 x m2 x
m e 2 mx
 0
m2  0
F ( x )  K1e  K 2 ( x )e
( 0) x ( 0) x
m1 0
F ( x )  K1e  K 2 ( x )e
( 0) ( 0)
m2  0
F ( x)  K1  K2 x
STEP 1

For C=0
F ( x)  K1  K2 x
From the boundary condition, we get
T (0, t )  0 T ( L, t )  0
F ( x)  K1  K 2 x F ( x)  K1  K 2 x
0  K1  K 2 (0) 0  K1  K 2 L
0  K1
So,
K1  0
TRIVIAL
K2  0
F ''  CF  0 Homogeneous differential eq.

F  e mx
F '  memx
F ''  m 2 e mx

## For C<0 F ''  CF  0

yH  K1e  K 2e
m1 x m2 x
F ''  p 2 F  0
m 2 e mx  p 2 e mx  0 (  pi ) x
yH  K1e  K 2e
( pi ) x

e mx ( m 2  p 2 )  0
m2  p2  0 F ( x)  K1 cos( px)  K2 sin( px)
m1 pi
m2   pi
STEP 1

For C<0
C   p2
F ''  CF  0
F ''  p 2 F  0
F ( x)  K1 cos( px)  K2 sin( px)

## From the boundary condition, we get

T (0, t )  0
T ( L, t )  0
F ( x)  K1 cos( px)  K 2 sin( px)
0  K1 cos( p (0))  K 2 sin( p (0))
F ( x)  K1 cos( px)  K 2 sin( px)
0  K1 cos(0)  K 2 sin( 0) 0  K1 cos( pL)  K 2 sin( pL)
0  K1 (1)  K 2 (0) K1  0 NON-
0  K1 SO,
K2  0 TRIVIAL
STEP 1

G '  C 2G
G '   p 2 2G
STEP 2

## From boundary condition

T (0, t )  0 Boundary condition
F ( x)  K1 cos( px)  K 2 sin( px)
0  K1 cos( p (0))  K 2 sin( p (0))
0  K1 cos(0)  K 2 sin( 0)
0  K1 (1)  K 2 (0)
0  K1

So,
F ( x)  K2 sin( px)
STEP 2

T ( L, t )  0 Boundary condition

F ( x )  K 2 sin( px )
0  K 2 sin( pL)
So,
sin( pL)  0 T ( L, t )  0
pL  n F ( x)  K 2 sin( px)
n
Subtitute p
n Fn ( x)  K 2 n sin( px)
p ; n  1,2,3,....,.... L
L
nx
Fn ( x)  K 2 n sin( )
L
STEP 2

G '   p 2 2G
dG
  p 2 2G
dt
dG
  p 2 2 dt
G
dG
 G    p  dt
2 2

ln G   p 2 2t  ln K 3
ln G  ln K 3   p 2 2t
G
ln   p 2 2t
K3
G
 e p  t
2 2

K3
 2t
G  K 3n e  p
2

n 2 2
( )  t
Gn (t )  K 3n e L
STEP 2

T ( x, t )  F ( x).G (t )
T ( x, t )  Fn ( x).Gn (t )
n
nx ( ) 2  2t
T ( x, t )  K 2 n sin( ).K 3n e L
L
n
nx ( L ) 2  2t
T ( x, t )  K 2 n K 3n sin( ).e
L
n
nx ( L ) 2  2t
T ( x, t )  An sin( ).e
L
STEP 3

T ( x, t )   Tn ( x, t )
n 1

T ( x, t )   Fn ( x).Gn (t )
n 1
n

nx ( ) 2  2t
T ( x, t )   K 2 n sin( ).K 3n e L
n 1 L
n 2 2

nx ( )  t
T ( x, t )   K 2 n K 3n sin( ).e L

n 1 L

nx ( nL ) 2  2t
T ( x, t )   An sin( ).e
n 1 L
STEP 3

 Initial condition T ( x , 0)  f ( x )

nx ( nL ) 2  2t
T ( x,0)   An sin( ).e
n 1 L

nx ( nL ) 2  2 ( 0 )
T ( x,0)   An sin( ).e
n 1 L

nx 0
T ( x,0)   An sin( ).e
n 1 L

nx 1
T ( x,0)   An sin( ). 0
n 1 L e

nx 1
T ( x,0)   An sin( ).
n 1 L 1

nx
T ( x,0)   An sin( ).1
n 1 L

nx
T ( x,0)   An sin( )
n 1 L
Fourier Series

## The Fourier series of f(x) is defined by

1 
General equation f ( x)  ao   (an cos(nx)  bn sin(nx))
2 n 1

## Theorem: Let f(x) be a function defined and integratable on interval[ ,  ]

If is an odd function (f(-x)=-f(x) ), that is, (see Fig. 267), its
Fourier series reduces to a Fourier sine series.
Fourier sine series

nx
f ( x)   bn sin( )
n 1 L

With coefficient

nx
L
2
bn   f ( x) sin dx
L0 L
STEP 3

## Fourier sine series

nx
T ( x,0)   An sin( )
n 1 L
SO,
nx
L
2
An   f ( x) sin dx
L0 L