Sei sulla pagina 1di 29

EE-379

LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS


Lecture No 16, 17

“CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING”


Text Book: Chapter 7 (nn 6th Ed)
7.1 Introduction, Page 340
7.2 Steady-State Error for Unity Feedback Systems,
Page 343
7.3 Static Error Constants and System Type, Page 349

Instructor: Dr. Farid Gul


Class: BEE 4A/B
Electrical Engineering Department
1
Introduction
Control systems analysis and design focus on
three specifications:
(1) transient response
(2) stability
(3) steady-state errors

Definition
Steady-state error is the difference between
the input and the output for a prescribed test
input as t  
2
Figure1.5
Elevator input and output

3
Laplace Transform Theorems

4
Table 7.1
Test waveforms for evaluating steady-state errors of
position control systems

5
Figure 7.1
Test inputs for steady-state
error analysis and design vary
with target type

6
Steady-state error: (step input)

7
Steady-state error: (ramp input)

8
Steady State Error of Closed-loop Systems

• Error is the difference between the


input and the output of a system
• T(s) is a closed-loop transfer
function
E(s) = R(s) – C(s) a. General representation

E(s) for unity feedback systems


b. Representation for
unity feedback systems

9
E(s) = R(s) - C(s) is the error.
For step input, in the steady state, if c(t)
equals r(t), e(t) will be zero.
a. System with finite With a pure gain, K, the error, e(t),
steady-state error for a cannot be zero if c(t) is to be finite and
step input nonzero
E(s)ss =1/K C(s)ss

b. System with zero


steady-state error for
step input

10
Steady-State Error for Unity
Feedback Systems

11
Final and initial value theorem

Steady-State Error in Terms of T(s)

E ( s)  R( s)  C ( s)

C ( s )  R( s )T ( s )

E ( s )  R( s )[1  T ( s )]

e()  lim e(t )  lim sE ( s)


t  s 0

e()  lim sR( s)[1  T ( s)]


s 0

12
Example 7.1
PROBLEM:
Find the steady-state error for the system shown in the Figure if
T(s) = 5/(s2 + 7s + 10) and the input is a unit step.

SOLUTION:
Applying final value theorem
From the problem statement,
R(s) = 1/s and
T(s) = 5/(s2 + 7s +10).

Substituting T(s) into :


E ( s)  R( s)[1  T ( s)]

13
Steady-State Error in Terms of G(s)
• System may be configured as unity
feedback system with forward
transfer function G(s)

• Steady-state error may be expressed


in terms of G(s) rather than T(s)

To apply the final value theorem, the


close loop system must be stable

Given the input R(s) and the System G(s),


Steady  state error e() can be calculated .

14
Effect of various inputs on the
steady-state error

Step Input
R(s) = 1/s For the limit to be infinite, the den
must equl zero as s goes to zero

n 1
The term is dc gain of G(s) At least one pure integration must
be present in the forward path
For zero steady-state error
If no integrator --- n=0

Finite error
15
Ramp Input
R(s) = 1/s2

If one integrator --- n=1

For the limit to be infinite, the den


must equl zero as s goes to zero
Finite error

n2 If no integrator --- n=0


0
At least two pure integration must
be present in the forward path infinite error
16
Parabolic Input.
R(s) = 1/s3

If two integrator --- n=2

For the limit to be infinite, the den


must equl zero as s goes to zero
Finite error

n3 If one integrator or less --- n<2


0
At least three pure integration must
be present in the forward path infinite error
17
Example 7.2 Steady-State Errors for Systems with No Integrations

PROBLEM: Find the steady-state errors for inputs of 5u(t),


5tu(t), and 5 t2 u(t) to the system shown in the Figure . The
function u(t) is the unit step.

SOLUTION:
• First verify that the closed-loop
system is stable.
• Next, for the input 5u(t), whose For the input 5tu(t), whose
Laplace transform is 5/s, the steady- Laplace transform is 5/s2,
state error will be five times as large
as that given by the Eq for ss error
For the input 5t2u(t), whose
Laplace transform is 10/s3,

18
Example 7.3 Steady-State Errors for Systems with One Integration

PROBLEM: Find the steady-state errors for inputs of 5u(t),


5tu(t), and 5 t2 u(t) to the system shown in the Figure . The
function u(t) is the unit step.

SOLUTION:
• First verify that the closed-loop
system is stable.
For the input 5tu(t), whose
• Next, for the input 5u(t), whose Laplace transform is 5/s2,
Laplace transform is 5/s, the steady-
state error will be five times as large
as that given by the Eq for ss error

For the input 5t2u(t), whose


Laplace transform is 10/s3,

19
20
Performance specifications for the
transient response
• damping ratio,
• natural frequency,
• settling time,
• percent overshoot,
• Peak time
• Rise time
Parameters that can be used as steady-state error
performance specifications, are called

static error constants


21
• The three terms in the denominator that
Static Error Constants are taken to the limit determine the steady-
state error.
• These limits are the static error constants.
For a step input, u(t),
Position Constant, Kp
1
e()  estep () 
1  lim G( s) K p  lim G ( s)
s 0 s 0

For a ramp input, tu(t), Velocity Constant, Kv


1
e()  estep () 
lim sG ( s) K v  lim sG ( s )
s 0 s 0

For a parabolic input, ½ t2u(t). Acceleration Constant, Ka

1
e()  estep () 
lim s 2G(s) Ka  lim s 2G(s)
s 0 s 0

22
Steady-State Error via Static Error Constants
Example 7.4

PROBLEM:
For each system in
the Figure, evaluate
the static error
constants and find the
expected error for the
standard step, ramp,
and parabolic inputs.

23
24
25
26
System Type

Since steady-state errors are dependent upon the number of integrations in


the forward path, a name is given to this system attribute

system type is defined to be the value ofnin the denominator.


Thus:
a system with n = 0 is a Type 0 system
n=1 is a Type 1 system
n=2 is a Type 2 system
27
Table 7.2
Relationships between input, system type, static error
constants, and steady-state errors

28
29