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Towards the digital world

from Vedic Mathematics

by

Prof. G. T. Haldankar
Electronics Engineering Department

18 September 2018
Mathematics never change
• Physical theories may be expected to change
whenever new information about our physical
world is discovered. Mathematics changes in a
different way: new ideas do not falsify old ones
but rather are used to generalize what was
known before to capture a broader range of
phenomena. For instance, calculus (in one
variable) generalizes to multivariable calculus,
which generalizes to analysis on manifolds

18 September 2018
Ancient Mathematics
• The greatest mathematics
before the Golden Age of
Greece was in India's early
Vedic civilization. The
Vedics understood
relationships between
geometry and arithmetic,
developed astronomy,
astrology, calendars, and
used mathematical forms in
some religious rituals.

18 September 2018
Mathematician’s view about GOD
Many mathematicians have
expressed the view that God is in
some way responsible for the
rational order described so
successfully by mathematics. This
often involves likening God to a
mathematician. The ancient Greek
study of mathematics was closely
related to that of religion. Plato is
quoted as saying "God ever
geometrizes" and Pythagoras as
saying "numbers rule the Universe".
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Numbers related with God
• 2^n − 1 will denote the God and several
divinities.
• When n is zero = there is nothing;
• when n is 1 = unity, the Infinite God.
• When n is 2 = Trinity;
• when n is 3 = 7, the Saptha Rishis

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Mathematics and God

." Leopold Kronecker is


quoted as saying "God
made the natural
numbers, all the rest is
the work of man."

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Mathematics a tool to realize god

• An equation is
meaningless to me
unless it expresses
a thought of God.“
• He often said that
in Mathematics
alone, one can
have a concrete
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realisation of God.
God is a mathematician
• God created
everything by
number, weight
and measure.
(Newton)

18 September 2018
World will end in 2060- Newton

18 September 2018
https://www.standard.co.uk/news/the-world-will-end-in-2060-according-to-newton-7254673.html
If there is a God, he's a great
mathematician. :- Paul Dirac

18 September 2018
Women’s contribution
First recognized women
mathematician. She was born in
Alexandria, Egypt, around
350AD and was a recognized
scholar. Besides being a
mathematician, she was an
astute astronomer and a
philosopher. She believed in the
theories of Plato and Aristotle.
An angry Christian mob killed
her in, either the year 370 AD or
the year 415 AD.
18 September 2018
Basic mathematical operations

• Addition
• Subtraction
• Multiplication
• Division
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Multiplication and division
• What is multiplication ? :- Addition
Ex. 2*5 = 10 i.e 2+2+2+2+2 = 10

• What is division? :- Subtraction


Ex. 10/2 = 10-2=8-2=6-2=4-2=2-2=0
Number 2 is subtracted 5 times till the
reamainder is less than 2 or zero.
Therefore 5 is the answer.
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Multiplication
Case 1:- Multiplication of two digit numbers
ending with ‘5’

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Multiplication
Case II :-Left Hand digit should be the same
and the total of right hand digits should be
10

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Multiplication
• Same rules are applicable for
Multiplication of three digit numbers

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Multiplication
• Case III- First digits are same but, the total
of last digits does not come to 10.

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Multiplication
• Multiplication of digits near 100
99 X 99 = 9801
98X 92 = 9016
96X 94= 9024
102X 105= 10710
112X 102 = 11424
95 X 91 = 8645

18 September 2018
Multiplication
• Multiplication of digits near 50
62 X 63=

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Multiplication of sign numbers

• + ve X + ve = +ve
• - ve X - ve = +ve
• + ve X - ve = -ve
• - ve X + ve = -ve
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Multiplication

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Multiplications
• Multiplication of digits near 200

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Multiplication factor
Digits near 100 :- 1
Digits near 50 :- 1 / 2
Digits near 200 :- 2
Digits near 150 :- 3/2
Digits near 250 :- 5/2
Digits near 300 :- 3
Digits near 350 :- 7/2
Digits near 400 :- 4
18 September 2018
Multiplication with different bases

• 12 X 8 = Base is 10
• 36 X 32 = Base is 10
• 989 X 1007 = Base is 1000
• 512 X 498 = Base is 500X2 i.e. 1000
• 1508 X 1512 = Base is 1000
• 99999 X 99997 = Base is 100000

18 September 2018
Criss Cross technique
• Multiplication of any two digit numbers

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Examples based on criss cross technique
Steps explained in short = Right-Right, Cross, Left-left

18 September 2018
Multiplying two digit numbers by two digit numbers

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Examples

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Similarly the same technique is used to Multiply

1. Four digit numbers by two digit numbers

2. Five digit numbers by two digit numbers

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Multiplying three digit numbers by three digit numbers

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Division
• Denominator ending with 9
Ex. 73/139

Step 1:- Approximate 13.9 to 14


Step 2:- Start dividing 73/14
Step 3:- Q1=5 and R1=3
Step 4:- Our next gross no. (Divident)=R1Q1=35
Step 5:- Again 3 5 / 14 = 2 and R2 = 7
Step 6:- Next gross no. 72 / 14 = 5 and R3 = 2
Step 7:- Next gross no. 25/14 = 1 and R4 – 11
Step 8:- Next gross no. 111/14 = 7

SO, the answer is 0. 5 2 5 1 7


18 September 2018
Similar examples of denominator ending with 9

• 75 / 139 = 0.5 3 9 5 6 8
remainder = 5 1 3 7 9 1 1

• 63 / 149 = 0.4 2 2 8 1 8 7
remainder = 3 4 1 2 2 1 3 1 1

• 83 / 189 = 0.4 3 9 1 5 3
remainder = 7 1 7 2 10 6 8
18 September 2018
SQUARES
• Find squares of the following no.s
ending with 5
15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 95

• Find squares of the adjacent numbers


762 = (75)2 + (75 + 76) = 5625 + 151= 5776
692 = (70)2 - (69 + 70) = 4900 - 139= 4761

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Squares of nos 11 to 19
• (11)2 = (11+1) / 12 = 121
• (12)2 = (12+2) / 22 = 144
• (13)2 = (13+3) / 32 = 169
• (14)2 = (14+4) / 42 = 18+1/6 = 196
• (16)2 = (16+6) / 62 = 22+3/6 = 256
• (18)2 = (18+8) / 82 = 26+6/4 = 324
• (19)2 = (19+9) / 92 = 28+8/1 = 361

18 September 2018
Squares of nos above 19 & upto 99

• (21)2 = 2(21+1) / 12 = 441


• (32)2 = 3(32+2) / 22 = 1024
• (41)2 = 4(41+1) / 12 = 1681
• (59)2 = 5(59+9) / 92 = 340+8/1= 3481
• (62)2 = 6(62+2) / 22 = 3844
• (78)2 = 7(78+8) / 82 = 602+6/4= 6084
• (83)2 = 8(83+3) / 32 = 6889

18 September 2018
Cubes
• (a+b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3

This can be written as


a3 + a2b + ab2 + b3
+ 2a2b + 2ab2

Where a3* b/a = a2b & a2b*b/a = ab2


& ab2* b/a = b3
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Examples
213 = 253 =

8 4 2 1 8 20 50 125
8 4 40 100
8 12 6 1 8 60 150 125
9 2 6 1 15 6 2 5

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Solving linear equations
• 5X - 3y = 11
• 6X -5y = 9

X = N/D
Where N = (-3 X 9) – (-5 X 11)
= -27 +55 = 28
& D = (-3 X 6) – (-5 X 5) = 7
X=4
18 September 2018
Typical equations

• 6x + 7y = 8
• 19x +14y = 16

Coefficient of y and constants are in the


same ratio i.e. 2

Therefore x = 0

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Typical equations
• 45x – 23y = 113
• 23x – 45y = 91
When coefficient are interchanged.
ADD equations to get 68(x-y) = 204
i.e x-y =3
Subtract to get 22x + 22y = 22
i.e. x + y = 1 so, x = 2 & y = -1

18 September 2018
Number systems
• Decimal number system :- 0 – 9

• Octal number system :- 0 – 7

• Can you create your own number system?

18 September 2018
Number system used in digital
world

• Binary number system

• Hexadecimal number system :-0 – 9 & A-F

18 September 2018
•What is open source
software? Is there any
open source
hardware?
18 September 2018
Open source hardware: ExpEYES-17
• ExpEYES-17 is interfaced and powered by the
USB port of the computer, and it is programmable
in Python.
• Function as a low frequency oscilloscope, function
generator, programmable voltage source,
frequency counter and data logger.
• The external voltages connected to ExpEYES17
must be within the allowed limits. Inputs A1 and
A2 must be within ±16 volts range and Inputs IN1
and IN2 must be in 0 to 3.3V range.

18 September 2018
Experiments using ExpEYES-17

• Science laboratory

• Experiment from school to post graduate


level

• Coding ExpEYES-17 using Python

18 September 2018
ExpEYES hardware

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Raspberry pi

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Arduino board

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UDOO board

18 September 2018
Why Python?
• Free and open source

• Easy to learn

• Dynamic data typing

• Communication with hardware is easy.

18 September 2018
Websites to get learning material
• onlinecourses.nptel.ac.in
Register using gmail ID and select
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavans Sardar Patel
Institute of Technology

• https://www.udemy.com

18 September 2018
Thank you

18 September 2018