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SLD & SUBSTATION EQUIPMENT DETAILS

An over view
TYPICAL SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
SLD-AN OVERVIEW

The system at a glance


Bill of materials
Equipment specifications in brief
Protection features
Source-load Connectivity
Future options
ANSI DEVICE NUMBERS

ANSI=American National Standard Institute


50=Definite time O/C Protection, DTOC
50N=Non-directional Earth Fault
51=Inverse time O/C Protection, IDMT
51N=Non-directional Earth Fault
67=Directional Over Current Protection
67N=Directional Earth Fault Protection
27=Under Voltage Protection
59=Over Voltage Protection
87T=Transformer Differential Protection
87N=Restricted Earth Fault Protection
87L=Line Differential Protection
ANSI DEVICE NUMBERS

81U/O=Under/Over Frequency Protection


81R=Rate of change of frequency
21=Line Distance Protection
87B=Bus Differential Protection
50BF=Breaker Failure Protection
25=Synchronization Check
86=Lockout Relay
94=Tripping relay
74=Trip Circuit Supervision
79=Auto reclose function
52=Circuit Breaker
89=Line Switch
BILL OF MATERIALS

BOM includes total number of:


Power Transformer
Current Transformer (CT)
Potential Transformer (IVT/CVT)
Circuit Breaker (CB)
Disconnecting Switch (DS)
Earth Switch (ES)
Lightning Arrestor (LA)
Bus bar
Power Cable
Fuse
Protective Relay
Energy Meter
Ammeter, Voltmeter, Frequency meter, Megawatt meter, MVAR meter, etc
POWER TRANSFORMER IN SLD

Rating in KVA/MVA: depending on natural cooling/forced cooling


Rated voltage level:132/33Kv etc
HT Bushing CT ratio:300/1A
LT Bushing CT ratio:1200/1A
Neutral Bushing CT ratio:300/1A or 1200/1A
Vector Group:Dyn1/Dyn11/YNd1/YNd11 etc
On load tap changer:±10% etc
Differential protection coverage : from BCT or line CT
REF protection
CURRENT TRANSFORMER IN SLD

Location of Current Transformer


Ratio:300/1A, 600/1A, 1200/1A etc depending on requirement
Class:0.2, 5P20, X etc
Burden: 20 VA, 30 VA etc
CT core allocation
Protection feature indicating with ANSI number
Metering connection details
POTENTIAL TRANSFOMER IN SLD

Location of Potential Transformer


Ratio: 33Kv/√3/110√3V or 132Kv/√3/110√3V etc
Class:0.2, 3P etc
Burden: 30 VA, 50 VA etc
PT core allocation
Protection feature indicating with ANSI number
Metering connection details
CIRCUIT BREAKER IN SLD

Location of CB
Type of CB
Rated current: 1250A etc
Rated short circuit current: 31.5KA etc
Rated short circuit with stand capability:1 or 3 sec
DS/ES, LA IN SLD

Location of DS
Rating of DS:125OA,31.5KA etc

Location of ES
Operational Direction of ES

Location of LA
Rating of LA: 30Kv, 10KA etc
BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT IN SLD

Single bus
Main & Transfer bus
Double bus single breaker
Double bus double breaker
One & Half bus
Ring bus
Current rating of bus bar conductor
PROTECTIVE RELAY IN SLD

Over Current & Earth Fault protection relay


Directional O/C & Directional E/F protection relay
Voltage & Frequency protection relay
Transformer Differential protection relay
Restricted Earth Fault protection relay
Line Differential protection relay
Line Distance protection relay
Bus Differential protection relay
Synchronization relay
METERING IN SLD

Main Energy/Revenue meter


Back up Energy/Revenue meter
Mega Watt meter
Mega VAR meter
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Frequency/Hz meter
Power factor meter etc
POWER CABLE IN SLD

Size of power cable in square mm


Number of cores in one power cable
CONTROL PANEL & RELAY PANEL

Up to MV level control & relay panel is in the same cubicle for
one line/feeder
In HV level Control Panel & Relay Panel are in two separate
cubicles for the same line/feeder
CB, DS/ES operation, Ammeter, Voltmeter, Hz meter, Power
factor meter, Megawatt & MVAR meter, Annunciator, Indicating
lamp, mimic diagram etc are accommodated in Control Panel
(HV system)
All the protective relays, lockout/trip relays, TCS are
accommodated in Relay Panel (HV system)
REVENUE/ENERGY METERING PANEL

In most of the cases there is a dedicated separate revenue metering


panel which is tested & sealed by the appropriate authority

Test Terminal Block: It is a terminal block for CT & PT in metering panel


which provides options for testing the revenue meter in live condition
AC DISTRIBUTION BOARD

For station power consumption & equipment operation there


may be one or more AC distribution board equipped with
MCB/MCCB of different ratings. Control/relay panel heating &
lighting, DS/CB motor, transformer cooling, switchyard
lighting, control room lighting, air conditioner etc load
supplied from ACDB
DC DISTRIBUTION BOARD

For control circuit, indications, alarms, protective relay


auxiliary power etc DC power supply works as a “Heart of
Substation” . There are one or two dedicated DCDB at each
substation . DC control voltage may be 24/48/110DC etc
BATTERY BANK & CHARGER

 DC supply is ensured from one/two separate battery banks


 Battery banks are kept in continuous charging (boost/float)by
one/two separate battery charger so that the terminal voltage
of the battery banks never goes down below minimum level
THANK YOU ALL