Sei sulla pagina 1di 131

OFFICE SAFETY

BLOCKING EXITS
SLIPS, TRIPS, & FALLS

ELECTRICAL

WORKSTATION
DESIGN HEATERS & FANS

LIFTING
HOUSEKEEPING

FAULTY EQUIPMENT
EMERGENCY ACTION PLANS
Office employees are part of the health
and safety process.
Potential Office Safety Hazards include:

• Ergonomic issues • Office machines


(copiers, paper cutters,
• Fire & evacuation shredders, jammed machines);
• Electrical cords & • Slips, trips, falls
equipment
• Housekeeping
• Heat-generating
• Furniture/layout
sources (coffee pots)
• Hand tools
IMPROPER LIFTING TECHNIQUES

MOVING FURNITURE
LIFTING BOXES
Safe Work Practices
• Never stand on the chair or
table to reach anything.
• The top of your computer
should be at eye level to avoid
neck strain.
• Keep aisles, hallways, and
corridors clear.
• Use safe lifting practices. Bend
your knees!
Safe Work Practices
• Good housekeeping is essential.
• Never store items under your desk.
• Never store items on top of cabinets.
• Never leave desk or cabinet drawers open.
OFFICE EQUIPMENT

CHAIRS STAPLERS

POWERSTRIPS

GROUND WIRES

FRAYED CORDS
HOLIDAY
DECORATIONS
First Aid
• Make sure that you know the location of the
nearest First Aid Kit.
• Make sure that the First Aid Kit is stocked
properly.
• Information on locations and supplies for First
Aid Kits can be found in Appendix G of the
Emergency Action Plan @
www.usca.edu/operations.manuals.html
EMERGENCY PLAN

• Each Office Area will have a written


plan that covers fire, earthquake,
storm or flood emergencies.
• Should be reviewed with employees
each time it is changed
EMERGENCY EVACUATION PLAN

• Procedures for emergency escape


• Emergency route
• Account for all personnel after evacuation
WORKSTATIONS
STOW KEYBOARDS CHAIRS SHOULD
WHEN NOT IN USE BE ADJUSTABLE

KEEP FILE
DRAWERS
CLOSED DON’T USE
PLATE GLASS
ON TOP OF DESK

DON’T USE
DEFECTIVE
CHAIRS

VDT’s SHOULD LIGHTING


BE ADJUSTED AT
THE RIGHT HEIGHT
LIGHTING
• Areas that have too much or too little light can
cause headache, strain, and fatigue.
• Use adjustable task lighting for tasks that require
greater illumination.
• Take visual “breaks” every 30 minutes (look at
objects at least 20 ft away).
• Get regular eye exams…let your eye doctor know
if you are working at a computer!
Noise can produce tension and stress, as well as damage to hearing. Some
of the numerous measures available to control unwanted noise include:

• Place noisy machines in an enclosed space


• Use carpeting, draperies, and acoustical ceiling tiles to
muffle noise
• Adjust telephone volume to its lowest level
• Rearrange traffic routes within the office to reduce
traffic within and between work areas.
HOUSEKEEPING

WIPE UP SPILLS REPAIR CARPET


IMMEDIATELY TEARS
IMMEDIATELY

DON’T STORE MOPS


IN JANITOR STACK BOXES
CLOSETS NEATLY AND
AT AN
ACCEPTABLE
TAPE CORDS IN LEVEL
TRAVEL AREA
EXITS

• DON’T BLOCK THE EXIT


• MAKE SURE EXITS ARE LABELED
• DON’T BLOCK THE AISLES
• CHECK EMERGENCY LIGHTING
MISHAP CAUSATION FACTORS

• FATIGUE
• UNREPORTED SAFETY
• HASTE HAZARDS
• INATTENTION
• NOT USING PROPER
• COMPLACENT
PERSONAL
• ANGER PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT
• DEFECTIVE
(PPE)
EQUIPMENT
MISHAP PREVENTION

• ATTITUDE
• COMMUNICATION
• TRAINING
• COMPLIANCE
• INSPECTIONS
• INVESTIGATION
• PROPER
MAINTENANCE
MANAGERS AND SUPERVISORS ARE
RESPONSIBLE FOR:

• MAINTAINING SAFE/HEALTHFUL WORKING


CONDITIONS

• ENSURING THAT APPROPRIATE CLAIMS ARE


PROPERLY SUBMITTED IN A TIMELY MANNER

• MAINTAINING CONTACT WITH INJURED


EMPLOYEE
MANAGERS AND SUPERVISORS ARE
RESPONSIBLE FOR:
• MODIFYING DUTIES OF POSITION IN ORDER
TO RETAIN INJURED WORKER
• REVIEWING FECA COST IN ORER TO IDENTIFY
AREAS WHERE COSTS CAN BE REDUCED
• CONSIDERED ELIGIBLE REHABILITATED
INJURED WORKER FOR REEMPLOYMENT.
OFFICE SAFETY FACTS

• FALLING • GREATEST
OBJECT NUMBER OF
MISHAPS INJURIES COME
• FIRE AND FROM SLIPS,
ELECTRICAL TRIPS, AND FALLS.
HAZARD RECENTLY, THEY
MISHAPS ACCOUNTED FOR
64% OF ALL
• MISC. MISHAPS OFFICE MISHAPS.
OFFICE SAFETY FACTS

• SLIPS, TRIPS,
FALLS
• IMPROPERLY USED
EQUIPMENT
• FAULTY
EQUIPMENT
• COLLISIONS OR
OBSTRUCTIONS
MISHAPS
BASIC RULES

•PARTICIPATION IS ESSENTIAL
•LET US HAVE THE BENEFIT OF YOUR
EXPERIENCE
•ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO PARTICIPATE
•ASK QUESTIONS IF YOU ARE UNSURE
•SAY WHAT YOU THINK
•ENJOY THE OPPORTUNITY

8/14/2018
SAFETY TRAINING
NEED FOR SAFETY Why?
Why Safety?

• To live a good life?


• Nurture family?
• Avoid legal hassles?
• Fulfill organization’s obligations?
• To excel and set benchmarks?
WHAT IS AN ACCIDENT?

AN ACCIDENT IS AN UNPLANNED,
UNEXPECTED EVENT, WHICH HAS
A POTENTIAL OF CAUSING
PERSONAL INJURY, PROPERTY
DAMAGE, ENVIRONMENTAL
DAMAGE
Avoid Losses
•Direct loss
•Indirect loss
NO WORRIES! I AM INSURED!

Plant insurance
Making Profits
Eventuality

Blame game Claim received


Loss assessed
Cost of an Accident is an Iceberg!

Accidents are Loss of


just the tip of Compensation
property
iceberg . . . Production
Loss of
loss
profit

Loss of time Loss of reputation


Loss of No claim bonus Loss of skilled manpower
Loss of IP Loss of trust
Loss of clientele

Beware of the hidden . . . Potential ones are


threat, identify and those hidden in the murky
reduce risk. lights of the future
The objective of Risk Management is to
maintain risks at a tolerable level
A simple definition of risk is:
Risk = Likelihood x Consequences

)
of an accident if accident

(
A risk can be tolerated if:
occurs

–The likelihood is sufficiently remote and/or


–The consequences can be tolerated
• Risk can be eliminated or reduced by:
–Changes in the design or operation
–Transferring all or part of the risk
Causes of Injuries

Unsafe Acts
96%

Unsafe Conditions
4%
Safety events iceberg

1
Serious accident
30 Declared accidents
300 First aid rendered

3000 Near-misses

30000 Dangerous situations


UNSAFE ACT

• Shortsightedness- Taking shortcuts and avoiding


SOP, Instructions, Work Permit etc.
• Overconfidence-It has never happened to me, my
horoscope is too bright
• Lack of wisdom/ experience/ knowledge
• Lack of vision- Lack of far sightedness.
BAD HOUSEKEEPING
SLIP AND TRIPS
GUESS THE HAZARD
BAD ARRANGEMENT
OPEN TERMINALS
OVERLOADED CIRCUITS
FRAYED CABLE
KEEP EXIT FREE OF OBSTRUCTIONS
HOLD THE RAILINGS FOR SUPPORT
JUMBLED CABLES
HOW WILL YOU EXIT IN EMERGENCY ?
TRIP HAZARD
KEEP THEM BEYOND THE REACH OF TODDLERS
REMEDIES FOR UNSAFE ACTIONS

• Right man for right job

• Education and training

• Supervision & monitoring

• Inculcating Safety culture

If you tell me, I may forget, if you show me I will remember


but if you involve me, I will understand.
REMEDIES FOR UNSAFE CONDITIONS

• Engineering revisions

• Frequent inspections

• Taking feedbacks

• Doing backward integration

• Analyzing data and taking corrective actions


Remedies for Unsafe Acts and Conditions!

• Have you identified risks in your work


environment?

• Have a positive attitude towards Safety


Modern Complacencies

• ISO 9001
• ISO 14001
• OHSAS 18001
• TPM (total productive maintenance)
• TQM (total quality management)
• Six Sigma (data driven, zero error approach)
• BSC rating (British safety council)
• ISRS (international safety rating system)

One may have to come out of his comfort zone……


HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY
H&S POLICY - CONTENTS

1. Responsibility
2. Training
3. Every one
4. Improvement
5. Organization
6. Compliance
7. Reporting
8. Transparency
9. Measurement
10. Support
11. Condition of employment
SAFETY ORGANIZATION
&
RESPONSIBILITIES
We need an integrated approach
Vision & Policy
Documentation / Data

Risk Assessment
Control

Safety Organization

Training / Audits/Performance Measurements


Office Housekeeping
&
Principles
a place for everything and everything in its place

.
Housekeeping 5S Principles

5S is a reference to five Japanese words that describe


standardized and effective methods to organize the workplace
housekeeping:
Seiri (Tidiness): Refers to the practice of sorting through all the
tools, materials, etc., in the work area and keeping only essential
items. Everything else is stored or discarded. This leads to fewer
hazards and less clutter to interfere with productive work.
Seiton (Orderliness): Focuses on the need for an orderly
workplace. Tools, equipment, and materials must be
systematically arranged for the easiest and most efficient access.
There must be a place for everything, and everything must be in
its place.
Housekeeping 5S Principles

Seiso (Cleanliness): Indicates the need to keep the workplace


clean as well as neat. Cleaning in Japanese companies is a daily
activity. At the end of each shift, the work area is cleaned up
and everything is restored to its place.

Seiketsu ( Standards): Allows for control and consistency.


Basic housekeeping standards apply everywhere in the facility.
Everyone knows exactly what his or her responsibilities are.
House keeping duties are part of regular work routines.

Shitsuke (Sustaining Discipline): Refers to maintaining


standards and keeping the facility in safe and efficient order
day after day, year after year.
Benefits of Good Housekeeping Practices

 Fewer tripping and slipping accidents


 Decreased fire hazards
 Better control of documents and materials
 More efficient cleanup and maintenance
 Better hygienic conditions leading to improved health
 More effective use of space
 Reduced property damage by improving preventive
maintenance
 Improved morale and work productivity
Electrical Safety
Office Electrical Safety
Effects of Electricity on the Human Body

• 1 mA: Can be felt by the body


• 2-10 mA: Minor shock, might result in a fall
• 10-25 mA: Loss of muscle control, may
not be able to let go of the current
• 25-75 mA: Painful, may lead to collapse
or death
• 75-300 mA: Last for 1/4 second, almost
always immediately fatal
Shock Severity

• Severity of the shock


depends on:
– Path of current through the
body
– Amount of current flowing
through the body (amps)
– Duration of the shocking
current through the body,
• LOW VOLTAGE DOES NOT
MEAN LOW HAZARD
General Electrical Hazards
• High-voltage overhead
power lines
• Damaged insulation on wires
• Digging or trenching near buried lines
• Broken switches or plugs
• Overloaded circuits
• Overheated appliances or tools
• Static electricity
• Flammable materials
• Lightning
• Earthing
Static Electricity

• Created when materials rub together


• Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns
• Can damage sensitive electronic equipment
• Reduced or prevented by:
– Proper grounding
– Anti-Static rubber matting
– Bonding & earthing of equipment, pipelines
Burns

• Most common shock-related


injury
• Occurs when you touch
electrical wiring or equipment
that is improperly used or
maintained
• Typically occurs on hands
• Very serious injury that needs
immediate attention
DO’S

• WHILLE PURCHASING , BUY ONLY STANDARD


ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE/EQUIPMENT.

• THE SUPPLY CORD SHOULD BE IN GOOD


CONDITION, FREE FROM CUTS OR DAMAGED
INSULATION OR ENTANGLEMENT.

• ALWAYS USE 3-PIN PLUGS IN THE APPLIANCE /


EQUIPMENT AND CONNECT THEM TO 3-PIN
SOCKET ONLY.
DO’S
• BEFORE REPLACING A LAMP OR HANDLING A
FAN , MAKE SURE THE SUPPLY IS ALWAYS IS
SWITHED “OFF “.

• ONLY A QUALIFIED PERSON / LICENSED


ELECTRICIAN SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO CARRY
OUT REPAIRS AND ANY AMATEURES HAVE NO
PLACE HERE.
DO’S
• THE MAIN SWITCHES SHOULD BE PROVIDED AT
A PLACE EASILY ACCESSIBLE TO PUT OFF
SUPPLY IN CASE OF AN EMERGENCY.

• USE ELCB ( EARTH LEAKAGE CIRCUIT


BREAKER ) WITH MAIN SWITCH AS SHOCK
GUARD.

• ALWAYS USE CORRECT SIZE AND QUALITY OF


FUSE WIRE FOR REPLACEMENT.
DO’S
• WHILE REMOVING THE FUSE CARRIER , PULL
SUPPLY END FIRST. WHILE REPLACING IT, THE
SUPPLY END SHOULD BE INSERTED LAST.

• EDUCATE CHILDREN ON MISHANDLING


ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS , EQUIPMENT AND
APPLIANCES.

• IN CASE OF ELECTRICAL FIRE SWITCH ‘OFF’


THE POWER SUPPLY AND USE SAND , CO2 OR
DCP EXTINGUISHER. DO NOT USE WATER.
DO’S
• SWITCH ‘OFF’ MAINS AT THE CLOSE OF
OFFICE

• TREAT ALL CIRCUITS AS LIVE UNLESS IT IS


CONFIRMED AFTER TESTING TO BE ‘’ DEAD “.

• NEVER BE OVER CONFIDENT WHILE DEALING


WITH ELECTRICITY.
DONT’S
• DO NOT INSERT WIRES DIRECTLY INTO THE
PLUG SOCKET WITHOUT A MATCHING PLUG PIN
TO USE ANY ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE EVEN
FOR TEMPORARY BASIS.

• DO NOT TOUCH ANY BARE WIRE (WITHOUT


INSULATION) IT MAY BE LIVE.

• DO NOT MAKE ANY TEMPORARY JOINTS IN THE


WIRING , ESPECIALLY WITHOUT PROPER
INSULATION.
DONT’S
• DO NOT CONNECT A FUSE IN THE NEUTRAL
CIRCUIT.

• DO NOT USE ANY APPILANCES WITHOUT


PROPER EARTHING.

• DO NOT OVER LOAD THE WIRE BY USING


MULTIPLE APPLIANCES FROM A SINGLE 5 AMP
PLUG SOCKET.
DONT’S
• DO NOT REPLACE FUSE, UNLESS THE FAULT IS
DETECTED AND RECTIFIED.

• DO NOT PROVIDE HIGHER SIZE FUSE WIRE


THAN THE PRESCRIBED SIZE.

• DO NOT USEWET HAND TO SWITCH ‘ON’ AND


SWITCH ‘OFF’ THE ELECTRICITY.

• DO NOT PLUG IN LAMP OR APPLIANCES WITH


THE SWITH ‘ON’.
DONT’S
• DO NOT TOUCH THR WATER OR THE METALLIC
CONTAINER WHEN THE IMMERSION HEATER IS
‘ON’DO NOT CLEAN ELECTRICAL SWITCHES,
BOARDS, ETC. WITH WET CLOTH.

• DO NOT TOUCH THE T.V. ANTENNA WITHOUT


DISCONNECTING THE T.V. RECEIVER FROM
THE CIRCUIT. YOU MAY GET A SHOCK DUE TO
FEED BACK.

• DO NOT JOIN FLEXIBLE CORDS BY TWISTING


THE WIRES AND TAPING THEM TOGETHER.
DONT’S
• DO NOT REMOVE THE THE WIRE MESH GUARD
OF A TABLE OR PEDESTAL FAN.

• DO NOT PLACE CLOTHES, PAPER,OR OTHER


COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL NEAR AN
ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE WHEN IT IS IN USE.

• IT IS ADVISABLE TO CARRY OUT EXHASTIVE


SAFETY AUDIT OF THE HOUSING COMPLEX TO
IDENTIFY AND ELIMINATE HAZARDS / DEFECTS
AT EARLY STAGE.
A FILM ON
‘2X5 ELECTRICITY RULES’
17.30 MINUTES
UnSafe Behaviors Often are Rewarding & Fun too

Safe Behaviors Often Lack Natural Rewarding Consequences


Fire Prevention & Control
A fire is a
phenomenon, in
which rapid
combustion
takes place with
liberation of
heat and light.
• Human error :
– Burning of matches &
rubbish
– Smoking
– Arson

• Electricity
• Removal of fuel -
starving
• Removal of heat -
cooling
• Removal of
oxygen/air -
smothering
Classification Of Fires

Class ‘A’

Fires in ordinary
Combustible materials such as
Wood, paper, textiles etc.

Cooling is used to put it out


Classification Of Fires

Class ‘B’
Fires in flammable Liquid like
oils, solvents,
Petroleum products,
Varnish, paints etc.

Smothering is used to put it out


Classification Of Fires

Class ‘C’

Fires involving gaseous


Substances under pressure.

Smothering is used to put out


such fire
Classification Of Fires

Class ‘D’

Fires involving metals like


magnesium, aluminum, zinc,
potassium
Breaking of chain reaction leads to
control and extinguishment.

* Electrical fires (earlier known as


Class E) no longer form a separate
class.
Fire Extinguishers
Water gas pressure (WGP)
• Paper, wood, cloth fires.
• Used in packaging areas and
storage, warehouses.

Foam
• Inflammable liquid like petrol,
diesel, oil, etc.
• Used in petrol, pump, machine
shops.
Fire Extinguishers
Dry chemical powder (DCP):
• Fire of inflammable liquids and
gases (LPG) and metal fires.

Carbon-dioxide(CO2) :
• All kinds of fires specially
electrical fires. Non conducting
residue less medium.
Extinguishing Techniques:

• Water based- direct stream at the


base
• Foam - do not put foam stream onto
the burning liquid. Allow foam to fall
lightly on fire
• Dry powder- start at the base of fire
and move up where burning
• CO2 - discharge as close to fire as
possible from edge of flame forward
and upward
Precautionary Measures

• “No smoking”

• Place for everything and


everything at its place “ good
housekeeping”
An Individuals Responsibility

• Read your evacuation plan.


• Stairways , exit routes (mental mapping)
• Contact numbers
• Know where the fire extinguishers and
medical kit exist
• Forget belongings, never rush back in
the building.
• Do not panic or exaggerate facts
* Stay close to floor.
* Don’t use water on electrical fire
* Switch off electricity
• If your clothes catch fire – lie down and roll.
Never run
• Do not use elevator during fire
• Use moist cloth on nose if stuck in smoke
Raise alarm shout ‘fire, fire’
& Evacuate
• Call fire brigade
• Fight the fire if possible.
Good housekeeping
• No smoking
• Sound electrical practices
• Maintenance of first aid fire fighting equipment
• Training
• Mock dills
• Clip on Fire Safety…….
Office
Health & Safety
including Ergonomics
Elements of a good Occupation
Health & Safety System
• Health and Safety Policy
• Inclusion of office building in ISO 14001/OHSAS
18001 certifications
• Training and awareness
• Employees participation and motivation
• Safety Rules
• New Equipment review and inspection
Elements contd..
• Accident reporting analysis investigation and
implementation and recommendations
• Health and safety improvement plan/targets
• First aid facilities/Occupational health center
• Good housekeeping
• Safety in storage and warehousing
• Contractor safety systems
• Safety for customers
Elements contd..
• Electrical and Personal safeguarding
• Ventilation, illumination and noise
• Prevention of occupational diseases
including periodic medical examination
• Management of Change
• Fire Prevention, Protection and fighting
systems
• Emergency Preparedness plans
Office Occupational Health & Safety
Examples
 Office furniture should be inspected so that sharp corners may be
removed immediately.
 Glass tops on desks and tables crack and cause safety hazards.
Durable synthetic surfaces are free from this trouble and can be
used instead of glass.
 Keep desk drawers closed to prevent people tripping over it.
 Only one file drawer should be opened at a time to prevent the
cabinet from toppling over. File cabinets should be bolted together
or otherwise secured to prevent tipping.
 Do not pile boxes, papers, books, or other heavy objects on top of
file cabinets; this could cause cabinet to tip and the materials to
avalanche on to the people.
Office Occupational Health & Safety
(Continued) Examples
Store away in safe place any pointed or blade like sharp edged
instruments after use. Do not hand any instrument to another person
with the point towards him/her.
Knife, blade, paper cutter and other sharp objects should not be kept
loosely in drawers. It should be kept in suitable containers.
Never store pencils, knife, blades, cutters pointed upward.
Do not leave breakable objects on the edge of desk or tables where
they can be easily pushed off.
Nothing should be left on the floor that can create a slip and trip
hazard.
Tiles should not be too slippery
People should use handrails in stairwell
Office Occupational Health & Safety
(Continued) Examples
Provide anti skid protection on treads at stairwell
Do not keep too many pots/plants in corridors
Good housekeeping is essential to prevent falls. Wipe up spilled
liquid immediately, and pick up pieces of paper, paper clips, rubber
bands, pencils, etc., as soon as they are spotted
Broken glass should be swept up immediately. It should not be placed
loose in a waste paper basket but it should be carefully wrapped in
heavy paper and marked "Broken Glass".
Running within the office is prohibited.
Doors must not be opened abruptly or slammed when closing. Do not
stand with the path of the door swing.
Office Occupational Health & Safety
(Continued) Examples
Do not place a lighted cigarette or cigar on any place other than
the ashtray.
In designated smoking areas, ash trays should be available and
large enough to safely contain smoking materials
No smoking should be allowed in mailing, shipping, or receive
rooms, or where large quantities of loose paper and other
combustibles or flammable liquids are stored
Pile materials neatly and firmly to prevents from falling to the
floor or ground.
Where materials are stored on shelves, the heavy objects should
be on the lower shelves
Where possible, electrical outlets should be installed to eliminate
extension cords. If cords MUST cross the floors, cover them with
rubber channels designed for this purpose.
Office Occupational Health & Safety
(Continued) Examples
 Tripping hazard such as defective floors. Floor mats, haphazard
placement of electric or telephone cords should be reported to the
maintenance section for immediate repair.
 Employees should not face windows, unshielded lamps, or other
sources of glare. Many factors associated with poor illumination
are contributing causes of office accidents. Some of these causes
are: direct glare, reflected glare from the work and harsh shadows.
 Ensure your workstation is comfortable.
 Accident records are absolutely necessary if an office safety
program is to succeed.
 Office employees should report every accident, no matter how
minor the injury.
 Supervisors are just as responsible for training their people in safe
procedures as they are training them for efficiency
ERGONOMICS
Ergonomics is made up of two Greek words:
"Ergos" (Work) + "Nomos" (Natural Laws)

Ergonomics is the application of scientific


information concerning humans to the design of
objects, systems and environment for human use.
Ergonomics comes into everything, which involves
people. Work systems, health & safety should all
embody ergonomic principles if well designed.

Ergonomics Involves: The study of workplace


equipment design or how to arrange and design
devices, machines or workspace so that people and
things interact safely and most efficiently.
What can Ergonomics mean
to an employer?
Direct costs associated with poor ergonomics in the
workplace can include:
- Medical insurance and worker’s compensation costs
- Lost Work Time
- Decreased productivity and quality
- Hiring temporary replacement

Indirect costs that can be associated with poor


ergonomics include:
- Overhead associated with replacing employee
- Cost of training replaced employee
- Lost productivity and efficiency or an employee day
offs on a sick claim
Some Risk Factors of
Poor Ergonomics
- Repetitive and/or prolonged activities
- Exposure to heat or cold, improper illumination
- Awkward postures and repetitive actions including
reaching above shoulders or behind back
- Excessive twisting, bending and reaching
- Excessive vibration from power tools
- Inappropriate or inadequate hand tools
- Continued bending at waist
- Continued lifting from below knuckles or above
shoulders
- Twisting at waist, especially while lifting
- Lifting or moving heavy objects
- Prolonged sitting, especially with poor posture
- Lack of adjustable chairs, body supports and work surface
Solving Ergonomic Problem
Look for likely causes and consider possible solutions. A minor
alteration may be all that is necessary to make a task easier and safer
to perform. For example:
-Provide height-adjustable chairs so individual operators can work at
their preferred work height;
-Arrange items stored on shelving so those used most frequently and
those that are the heaviest are between waist and shoulder height;
-Raise platforms to help operators reach badly located controls;
-Change shift work patterns; and
-Introduce job rotation between different tasks to reduce physical and
mental fatigue.
Typical Ergonomic problems found in the workplace:
Display Screen Equipment

- Working with laptop on table top


- The screen is poorly positioned - it is too high/low/close/far
from the worker, or is offset to one side.
- The mouse is placed too far away and requires stretching to use.
- Chairs are not properly adjusted to fit the person, forcing
awkward and uncomfortable postures.
- There is glare on the screen from overhead lights or windows,
increasing the risk of eyestrain.
- These problems may result in mistakes and poor productivity,
stress, eye strain, headaches and other aches or pains.
Typical Ergonomic problems found in the workplace:
Manual handling

- The load is too heavy and/or bulky, placing


unreasonable demands on the person.
- The load has to be lifted from the floor and/or above
the shoulders.
- The task involves frequent repetitive lifting.
- The task requires awkward postures, such as bending
or twisting.
- The load cannot be gripped properly.
Common Ergonomic Problems &
Their Solutions
Repeating an action

This uses the same muscles over and over again. The more a task is
repeated, the greater the risk.

Reducing repetition

- Break up work periods involving a lot of repetition with several


short breaks instead of one break at lunchtime or mid-shift.
- Allow for short, frequent pauses for very intensive work.
- Mechanize higher risk tasks.
Common Ergonomic Problems &
Their Solutions (continued)
Uncomfortable working position
These include moving the arm to an working extreme position, e.g.
working above head height, working with a very bent elbow, or
holding something in the same place for a period of time.

Finding the right position


- Design workplaces and equipment for workers of different sizes,
build, working strength.
- Provide platforms, adjustable chairs and footrests, and tools with
a suitable size and grip.
- Arrange the position and height and layout of the workstation so
that it is appropriate for the work.
Common Ergonomic Problems &
Their Solutions (continued)
Using a lot of force
This includes handling heavy objects,carrying out fast
movement or having to overcome friction, such as undoing a
bolt.
Reducing the amount of force
- Reduce the weight of items, or the distance moved or slide
them instead of lifting.
- Provide levers.
- Provide lightweight tools and, if not, a support, jig or
counterbalance will help.
- Purchase low vibration tools and maintain them properly.
- Distribute force, e.g. over the palm of the hand and not just one
finger.
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
AND
RESPONSE
Accident Reporting
&
Investigation
True incident - happened on 18-04-2007

Like you, this man too, had a dream.


Like you, he too pushed his way into the crowded train
Like you, he too wanted to get going before he got delayed
Unlike you, he slipped and fell in the gap between the train and the platform at Kandivli station
And eight bogies went over him

Find out what happened to this man on


told him exactly what he shouldn't do — move. And so, the man lay absolutely still as
eight bogies of the train passed over him — centimeters from his head. Within
seconds the 12-coach train passed and the man clambered out, unaided, unhurt, but
too shocked to speak to us after his near-death experience
What is a Near-Miss?
• An opportunity to improve environmental, safety,
and health practice based on a condition, or an
incident with potential for more serious consequence.

• A Near Miss is an unplanned event that did not result


in injury, illness, damage or product loss - but had
the potential to do so.
• The difference between a near miss and a full blown
incident is often a fraction of a second or a fraction of
an inch that may not be there the next time.
• Near misses are warnings of accidents in the making.
By accepting these warnings and looking for their
causes, we can prevent these situations recurring.
Definition
• An error which does not reach the patient or
cause harm
• An event or situation that could have resulted
in an accident, injury or illness, but did not,
either by chance or through timely
intervention.
• an accident that does not produce an injury or
disease
• an accidental collision that is narrowly avoided
• A miss close enough to cause damage
• Something that falls just short of success
Examples
Examples
Examples
Examples
Hazard Recognition
• Every person has an occupation
• Every occupation has at least one associated
hazard
• Occupational health hazards are not curable
• But all of them are preventable

• What the mind can not think, the eyes can


not see.
• What the mind can not think, the eyes can
not see.
Thanks