Sei sulla pagina 1di 44

# FE Mathematics Review

## Dr. Scott Molitor

Associate Professor
Undergraduate Program Director
Department of Bioengineering
Topics covered
 Analytic geometry  Algebra
– Equations of lines and curves – Complex numbers
– Distance, area and volume – Matrix arithmetic and
– Trigonometric identities determinants
– Vector arithmetic and
 Integral calculus applications
– Integrals and applications – Progressions and series
– Numerical methods – Numerical methods for finding
 Differential equations solutions of nonlinear equations
– Solution and applications  Probability and statistics
– Laplace transforms – Rules of probability
– Difference equations and Z – Combinations and permutations
transforms – Statistical measures (mean,
– Numerical methods S.D., etc.)
 Differential calculus – Probability density and
distribution functions
– Derivatives and applications
– Confidence intervals
– Limits and L’Hopital’s rule
– Hypothesis testing
– Linear regression
Tips for taking exam
 Use the reference handbook
– Know what it contains
– Know what types of problems you can use it for
– Know how to use it to solve problems
– Refer to it frequently
 Work backwards when possible
– FE exam is multiple choice with single correct answer
– Plug answers into problem when it is convenient to do so
– Try to work backwards to confirm your solution as often as possible
 Progress from easiest to hardest problem
– Same number of points per problem
 Calculator tips
– Check the NCEES website to confirm your model is allowed
– Avoid using it to save time!
– Many answers do not require a calculator (fractions vs. decimals)
Equations of lines
 What is the general form of
the equation for a line whose
x-intercept is 4 and y-
intercept is -6?
– (A) 2x – 3y – 18 = 0
– (B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0
– (C) 3x – 2y – 12 = 0
– (D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0
Equations of lines
 What is the general form of y  mx  b
the equation for a line whose y  y1  6  0 3
x-intercept is 4 and y- m 2  
x 2  x1 04 2
intercept is -6?
b  6
– (A) 2x – 3y – 18 = 0
3
– (B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0 y  x 6
– (C) 3x – 2y – 12 = 0 2
– (D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0 2  y  3  x  12
 Try using standard form 0  3  x  2  y  12
– Handbook pg 3: y = mx + b
– Given (x1, y1) = (4, 0)
– Given (x2, y2) = (0, -6)

 Answer is (C)
Equations of lines
 What is the general form of (A) 2  4  3  0  18  10  0
the equation for a line whose (B) 2  4  3  0  18  26  0
x-intercept is 4 and y- (C) 3  4  2  0  12  0
intercept is -6?
(D) 3  4  2  0  12  24  0
– (A) 2x – 3y – 18 = 0
– (B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0
– (C) 3x – 2y – 12 = 0 (C) 3  0  2  (6)  12  0
– (D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

 Work backwards
– Substitute (x1, y1) = (4, 0)
– Substitute (x2, y2) = (0, -6)
– See what works

 Answer is (C)
Trigonometry
 For some angle q, csc q = -
8/5. What is cos 2q?
– (A) 7/32
– (B) 1/4
– (C) 3/8
– (D) 5/8
Trigonometry
 For some angle q, csc q = - csc q 
1
8/5. What is cos 2q? sin q
– (A) 7/32 cos 2q  1  2  sin 2 q
– (B) 1/4 1
– (C) 3/8 cos 2q  1  2 
csc 2 q
– (D) 5/8
52 25
 Use trigonometric identities cos 2q  1  2  2  1  2 
8 64
on handbook page 5 25 7
cos 2q  1  
 Answer is (A) 32 32
 Confirm with calculator
– First find q = csc-1(-8/5)
– Then find cos 2q
Polar coordinates
 What is rectangular form of
the polar equation r2 = 1 –
tan2 q?
– (A) –x2 + x4y2 + y2 = 0
– (B) x2 + x2y2 - y2 - y4 = 0
– (C) –x4 + y2 = 0
– (D) x4 – x2 + x2y2 + y2 = 0
Polar coordinates
 What is rectangular form of r  x 2  y2
the polar equation r2 = 1 –
y
tan2 q? q  tan 1 ( )
– (A) –x2 + x4y2 + y2 = 0
x
– (B) x2 + x2y2 - y2 - y4 = 0 r 2  1  tan 2 q
– (C) –x4 + y2 = 0 y 1
( x  y )  1  tan (tan ( ))
2 2 2 2

– (D) x4 – x2 + x2y2 + y2 = 0 x
 Polar coordinate identities on y2
x  y  1 2
2 2

handbook page 5 x
 Answer is (D) x 4  x 2 y2  x 2  y2
x 4  x 2  x 2 y2  y2  0
Matrix identities
 For three matrices A, B and C,
which of the following
statements is not necessarily
true?
– (A) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
– (B) A(B + C) = AB + AC
– (C) (B + C)A = AB + AC
– (D) A + (B + C) = C + (A + B)
Matrix identities
 For three matrices A, B and C,  Should know (A) and (D) are
which of the following true from linear algebra
statements is not necessarily  Answer (B) appears as
true? matrix identity in handbook
– (A) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C page 7
– (B) A(B + C) = AB + AC
 Therefore can eliminate (C)
– (C) (B + C)A = AB + AC
as being true
– (D) A + (B + C) = C + (A + B)

##  Matrix identities on handbook

page 7
 Answer is (C)
Vector calculations
 For three vectors
A = 6i + 8j + 10k
B = i + 2j + 3k
C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the
product A·(B x C)?
– (A) 0
– (B) 64
– (C) 80
– (D) 216
Vector calculations
 For three vectors i j k
A = 6i + 8j + 10k B C  1 2 3
B = i + 2j + 3k 3 4 5
C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the B  C  i(2  5  3  4)  j(1 5  3  3)  k (1  4  2  3)
product A·(B x C)?
B  C  2i  4 j  2k
– (A) 0
A  (B  C)  (6i  8 j  10k )  (2i  4 j  2k )
– (B) 64
A  (B  C)  6  (2)  8  4  10  (2)  0
– (C) 80
– (D) 216

 Vector products on
handbook page 6
 Answer is (A)
Vector calculations
 For three vectors i j k
A = 6i + 8j + 10k B C  1 2 3
B = i + 2j + 3k 3 4 5
C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the B  C  i(2  5  3  4)  j(1 5  3  3)  k (1  4  2  3)
product A·(B x C)?
B  C  2i  4 j  2k
– (A) 0
A  (B  C)  (6i  8 j  10k )  (2i  4 j  2k )
– (B) 64
A  (B  C)  6  (2)  8  4  10  (2)  0
– (C) 80
– (D) 216
Aside: why is the answer zero? A dot
 Vector products on product is only zero when two vectors A
handbook page 6 and (B x C) are perpendicular. But this is
 Answer is (A) the case! A and C are parallel (A = 2C),
and (B x C) is perpendicular to C, hence
perpendicular to A!
Geometric progression
 The 2nd and 6th terms of a
geometric progression are
3/10 and 243/160. What is
the first term of the
sequence?
– (A) 1/10
– (B) 1/5
– (C) 3/5
– (D) 3/2
Geometric progression
 The 2nd and 6th terms of a l n  ar n 1
geometric progression are 3 243
3/10 and 243/160. What is l2  , l6 
10 160
the first term of the
l 6 ar 5 243 / 160 81
sequence?   r4  
– (A) 1/10 l 2 ar 3 / 10 16
– (B) 1/5 81 3
r4 
– (C) 3/5 16 2
– (D) 3/2 3 3
l2  a  
 Geometric progression on 2 10
handbook page 7 1
l1  a 
 Answer is (B) 5
Geometric progression
 The 2nd and 6th terms of a l n  ar n 1
geometric progression are 3 243
3/10 and 243/160. What is l2  , l6 
10 160
the first term of the
l 6 ar 5 243 / 160 81
sequence?   r4  
– (A) 1/10 l 2 ar 3 / 10 16
– (B) 1/5 81 3
r4 
– (C) 3/5 16 2
– (D) 3/2 3 3
l2  a  
 Geometric progression on 2 10
handbook page 7 1
l1  a 
 Answer is (B) 5
Confirm answer by calculating l2 and l6
with a = 1/5 and r = 3/2.
Roots of nonlinear equations
 Newton’s method is being
used to find the roots of the
equation f(x) = (x – 2)2 – 1.
Find the 3rd approximation if
the 1st approximation of the
root is 9.33
– (A) 1.0
– (B) 2.0
– (C) 3.0
– (D) 4.0
Roots of nonlinear equations
 Newton’s method is being x n 1  x n 
f (x n )
used to find the roots of the f ( x n )
equation f(x) = (x – 2)2 – 1. f ( x )  ( x  2) 2  1
Find the 3rd approximation if
the 1st approximation of the f ( x )  2  ( x  2)
root is 9.33 x1  9.33
– (A) 1.0 (9.33  2) 2  1
– (B) 2.0
x 2  9.33 
2  (9.33  2)
– (C) 3.0
52.73
– (D) 4.0 x 2  9.33   5.73
14.66
 Newton’s method on (5.73  2) 2  1
handbook page 13 x 3  5.73 
2  (5.73  2)
 Answer is (D) 12.91
x 3  5.73   4 .0
7.46
Limits
 What is the limit of (1 – e3x) /
4x as x  0?
– (A) -∞
– (B) -3/4
– (C) 0
– (D) 1/4
Limits
 What is the limit of (1 – e3x) / 1  e3 x 1  e30 1  1 0
lim    ?
4x as x  0? x 0 4x 40 0 0
– (A) -∞ f (x) 0 f ' (x)
if lim  , try lim
– (B) -3/4 x 0 g ( x ) 0 x 0 g ' ( x )

– (C) 0
1  e3x  3e3x
– (D) 1/4 lim  lim
x 0 4x x 0 4
 L’Hopital’s rule on handbook  3e3 x  3 1 3
page 8 lim  
x 0 4 4 4
 Answer is (B)
Limits
 What is the limit of (1 – e3x) / 1  e3 x 1  e30 1  1 0
lim    ?
4x as x  0? x 0 4x 40 0 0
– (A) -∞ f (x) 0 f ' (x)
if lim  , try lim
– (B) -3/4 x 0 g ( x ) 0 x 0 g ' ( x )

– (C) 0
1  e3x  3e3x
– (D) 1/4 lim  lim
x 0 4x x 0 4
 L’Hopital’s rule on handbook  3e3 x  3 1 3
page 8 lim  
x 0 4 4 4
 Answer is (B)
You should apply L’Hopital’s rule
iteratively until you find limit of f(x) /
g(x) that does not equal 0 / 0.
You can also use your calculator to
confirm the answer, substitute a small
value of x = 0.01 or 0.001.
Application of derivatives
 The radius of a snowball
rolling down a hill is
increasing at a rate of 20 cm
/ min. How fast is its volume
increasing when the
diameter is 1 m?
– (A) 0.034 m3 / min
– (B) 0.52 m3 / min
– (C) 0.63 m3 / min
– (D) 0.84 m3 / min
Application of derivatives
 The radius of a snowball 4 3
rolling down a hill is V(r )  r
3
increasing at a rate of 20 cm
dV dV dr
/ min. How fast is its volume  
increasing when the dt dr dt
diameter is 1 m? dV dr
 4r 2 
– (A) 0.034 m3 / min dt dt
– (B) 0.52 m3 / min dV m
– (C) 0.63 m3 / min  4  0.5m 2  0.2
dt min
– (D) 0.84 m3 / min
dV m3
 Derivatives on handbook  0.63
page 9; volume of sphere on dt min
handbook page 10
 Answer is (C)
Application of derivatives
 The radius of a snowball 4 3
rolling down a hill is V(r )  r
3
increasing at a rate of 20 cm
dV dV dr
/ min. How fast is its volume  
increasing when the dt dr dt
diameter is 1 m? dV dr
 4r 2 
– (A) 0.034 m3 / min dt dt
– (B) 0.52 m3 / min dV m
– (C) 0.63 m3 / min  4  0.5m 2  0.2
dt min
– (D) 0.84 m3 / min
dV m3
 Derivatives on handbook  0.63
page 9; volume of sphere on dt min
handbook page 10
Convert cm to m, convert diameter to
 Answer is (C)
radius, and confirm final units are correct.
Evaluating integrals
 Evaluate the indefinite
integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x
– (A) -2/3 sin3x + C
– (B) -1/3 cos3x + C
– (C) 1/3 sin3x + C
– (D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C
Evaluating integrals
u  cos 2 x
 Evaluate the indefinite
du  2  cos x  sin x  dx
integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x
dv  sin x  dx
– (A) -2/3 sin3x + C v   cos x
– (B) -1/3 cos3x + C
 u  dv  u  v   v  du
– (C) 1/3 sin3x + C
 cos x  sin x  dx   cos x   2  cos x  sin x  dx
2 3 2

## – (D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x +C

3   cos x  sin x  dx   cos x
2 3

##  Apply integration by parts on 1

    
2
cos x sin x dx cos 3 x
handbook page 9 3

 Answer is (B)
Evaluating integrals
d 2
 Evaluate the indefinite (A) ( sin 3 x  C)  2  sin 2 x  cos x
dx 3
integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x d 1
(B) ( cos 3 x  C)  cos 2 x  sin x
– (A) -2/3 sin3x + C dx 3
– (B) -1/3 cos3x + C d 1 3
( C) ( sin x  C)  sin 2 x  cos x
dx 3
– (C) 1/3 sin3x + C d 1
( D) ( sin 2 x  cos 2 x  C)  sin x  cos 3 x  sin 3 x  cos x
– (D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C dx 2

 Alternative method is to
differentiate answers
 Answer is (B)
Applications of integrals
 What is the area of the curve
bounded by the curve f(x) =
sin x and the x-axis on the
interval [/2, 2]?
– (A) 1
– (B) 2
– (C) 3
– (D) 4
Applications of integrals
 What is the area of the curve
bounded by the curve f(x) =
sin x and the x-axis on the
2
interval [/2, 2]?
/2
– (A) 1
– (B) 2
– (C) 3
– (D) 4 2
area   sin x  dx
 Need absolute value / 2
 2
because sin x is negative area   sin x  dx    sin x  dx
over interval [, 2] / 2 

##  Answer is (C) area   cos x  / 2  cos x 2

area  (1)  0  1  (1)  3
Differential equations
 What is the general solution
to the differential equation
y’’ – 8y’ + 16y = 0?
– (A) y = C1e4x
– (B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x
– (C) y = C1e-4x + C1e4x
– (D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x
Differential equations
 What is the general solution y  8 y  16 y  0
to the differential equation y  2  4 y  16 y  0
y’’ – 8y’ + 16y = 0? a  4, b  16
– (A) y = C1 e4x
r 2  2  4r  16r  0
– (B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x
– (C) y = C1e-4x + C1e4x r  4  4 2  16  4
– (D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x y  (C1  C 2 x )  e 4 x
 Solving 2nd order differential
eqns on handbook page 12
 Answer is (B)
Differential equations
 What is the general solution y  8 y  16 y  0
to the differential equation y  2  4 y  16 y  0
y’’ – 8y’ + 16y = 0? a  4, b  16
– (A) y = C1 e4x
r 2  2  4r  16r  0
– (B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x
– (C) y = C1e-4x + C1e4x r  4  4 2  16  4
– (D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x y  (C1  C 2 x )  e 4 x
 Solving 2nd order differential
eqns on handbook page 12 In this case, working backwards could
 Answer is (B) give an incorrect answer because answer
(A) would also work. The answer in (B)
is the sum of two terms that would satisfy
the differential equation, one of these
terms is the same as answer (A).
Laplace transforms
 Find the Laplace transform
of the equation f”(t) + f(t) =
sin bt where f(0) and f’(0) = 0
– (A) F(s) = b / [(1 + s2)(s2 + b2)]
– (B) F(s) = b / [(1 + s2)(s2 - b2)]
– (C) F(s) = b / [(1 - s2)(s2 + b2)]
– (D) F(s) = s / [(1 - s2)(s2 + b2)]
Laplace transforms
 Find the Laplace transform f ( t )  s 2 F(s)  s  f (0)  s 2  f (0)
of the equation f”(t) + f(t) = f ( t )  s 2 F(s)
sin bt where f(0) and f’(0) = 0
f ( t )  F(s)
– (A) F(s) = b / [(1 + s2)(s2 + b2)]
b
– (B) F(s) = b / [(1 + s2)(s2 - b2)]
– (C) F(s) = b / [(1 - s2)(s2 + b2)]

sin bt   e 0 t sin bt   s 2  b2
– (D) F(s) = s / [(1 - s2)(s2 + b2)]
b
s 2 F(s)  F(s) 
 Laplace transforms on s 2  b2
handbook page 174 (EECS b
section) (s 2  1)  F(s)  2
s  b2
 Answer is (A)
1 b
F(s)  2  2
s  1 s  b2
Probability of an outcome
 A marksman can hit a bull’s-
eye 3 out of 4 shots. What is
the probability he will hit a
bull’s-eye with at least 1 of
his next 3 shots?
– (A) 3/4
– (B) 15/16
– (C) 31/32
– (D) 63/64
Probability of an outcome
 A marksman can hit a bull’s-  Let H = hit, M = miss,
eye 3 out of 4 shots. What is Prob(H) = ¾, Prob(M) = ¼
the probability he will hit a  Use combinations for next
bull’s-eye with at least 1 of three shots
his next 3 shots?
– (A) 3/4  Find Prob(HMM + MHM +
– (B) 15/16 MMH + HHM + ...)
– (C) 31/32  Easier method: Prob(at least
– (D) 63/64 one hit) = 1 – Prob(no hits)
 Answer is (D)  1 – Prob(no hits) = 1 –
Prob(MMM)
 Prob(MMM) = Prob(M)3 =
(1/4)3 = 1/64
 Answer is 1 – 1/64 = 63/64
Normal distribution
 Exam scores are distributed
normally with a mean of 73
and a standard deviation of
11. What is the probability of
finding a score between 65
and 80?
– (A) 0.4196
– (B) 0.4837
– (C) 0.5161
– (D) 0.6455
Normal distribution
 Exam scores are distributed  Let X = a random score, find
normally with a mean of 73 and Prob(65 < X < 80)
a standard deviation of 11. – X is normally distributed with
What is the probability of finding mean 72 and S.D. 11
a score between 65 and 80?  (65 – 72) / 11 = -0.73 ≈ -0.7
– (A) 0.4196
– (B) 0.4837
 (80 – 72) / 11 = 0.64 ≈ 0.6
– (C) 0.5161  Prob(65 < X < 80) ≈ Prob(-0.7 <
– (D) 0.6455 Z < 0.6)
 Standard normal tables on  Convert Prob(-0.7 < Z < 0.6)
handbook page 20 – Prob(Z < 0.6) – Prob(Z < -0.7)
– Prob(Z < 0.6) – Prob(Z > 0.7)
 Answer is (B)
– F(0.6) – R(0.7) from table

##  Prob(65 < X < 80) ≈ 0.7257 –

0.2420 = 0.4837
Confidence intervals
 What is the 95% confidence
interval for the mean exam
score if the mean is 73 and
the standard deviation is 11
from 25 scores?
– (A) 73 ± 4.54
– (B) 73 ± 0.91
– (C) 73 ± 4.31
– (D) 73 ± 0.86
Confidence intervals
 What is the 95% confidence  Use formula for population
interval for the mean exam standard deviation unknown
s
score if the mean is 73 and  Formula is X  t a / 2 
the standard deviation is 11 n
from 25 scores?  Look up ta/2, n
– (A) 73 ± 4.54 – a = 1 – 0.95 = 0.05
– (B) 73 ± 0.91 – a/2 = 0.025
– (C) 73 ± 4.31 – n = 25 – 1 = 24 degrees of
freedom
– (D) 73 ± 0.86
– t0.025, 24 = 2.064 on page 21
 Confidence intervals on
handbook page 19  Calculate confidence interval
73 ± (2.064) (11) / √25
 ta values handbook page 21
 Answer is 73 ± 4.54
 Answer is (A)
Hypothesis testing
 You sample two lots of light bulbs
for mean lifetime. The first lot mean
= 792 hours, S.D. = 35 hours, n =
25. The second lot mean = 776
hours, S.D. = 24 hours, n = 20.
Determine with 95% confidence
whether light bulbs from the first lot
last longer than those from the
second lot. Provide a statistic
value.
– (A) First lot lasts longer, t0 = -1.96
– (B) No difference, z0 = 1.81
– (C) No difference, t0 = 1.74
– (D) First lot lasts longer, t0 = 1.96
Hypothesis testing
 You sample two lots of light bulbs  Test H0: m1 = m2 vs. H1: m1 > m2
for mean lifetime. The first lot mean – H0: m1 - m2 = 0 vs. H1: m1 - m2 > 0
= 792 hours, S.D. = 35 hours, n =
 Use formula for population standard
25. The second lot mean = 776
deviation or variance unknown
hours, S.D. = 24 hours, n = 20.
Determine with 95% confidence
whether light bulbs from the first lot (25  1)  352  (20  1)  24 2
Sp   30.63
last longer than those from the 25  20  2
second lot. Provide a statistic
value. 792  776
t0   1.74
– (A) First lot lasts longer, z0 = -1.96 30.63 1 25  1 20
– (B) No difference, z0 = 1.81
– (C) No difference, t0 = 1.74  Look up ta, n
– (D) First lot lasts longer, t0 = 1.96 – a = 1 – 0.95 = 0.05
 Hypothesis testing in IE section of – n = 25 + 20 – 2 = 43 d.o.f.
handbook page 198 – t0.05, 43 = 1.96 from page 21 (n > 29)

##  ta values handbook page 21  Accept null hypothesis since

statistic t0 < t0.05, 43
 Answer is (C)
 Bulbs from first lot do not last longer