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Carbohydrate Structure
• Are composed on C,H,O in a 1:2:1 ratio
• The monomer units of carbs. are
• Includes sugars (5C and 6C)
• Characteristic functional groups of sugars
are hydroxyl groups (-OH) and carbonyl
groups (-C=O)
Carb. Structure (con’t)
• The hydroxyl groups make a sugar an
• The carbonyl group, depending on its
location, makes the sugar either an aldose
(aldehyde sugar) or ketose (ketone sugar).
Glucose Fructose
(an aldose) (a ketose)
Structural Abbreviated Simplified
formula structure structure
• Disaccs. Are made from two monosaccs.
Linked by a dehydration reaction
• Disaccs. Include:
– Sucrose: glucose and fructose
– Maltose: glucose and glucose
– Lactose: glucose and galactose
Glucose Glucose
Glucose Glucose

• Polymers of monosaccharides
• Include:
– Glycogen: storage form of glucose in
animals (stored in the liver and muscle)
– Starch: storage form of glucose in plants
– Cellulose: structural polysac. Found in plant
cell walls
– Chitin: structural polysac. Found in fungi cell
walls and the exoskeleton of arthropods
Starch granules in STARCH Glucose
potato tuber cells monomer

granules GLYCOGEN
in muscle

Cellulose fibrils in
a plant cell wall
Hydrogen bonds

Functions of Carbohydrates
• Immediate energy for cell (sugars)
• Energy storage (glycogen and starch)
• Note: carbs store about 5 Calories per
• Cell structure and support (cellulose and
Structure of Lipids
• Consist of C,H,O, but with much less
oxygen than carbs. (Much higher ratio of
C-H; thus are insoluble in water)
• Monomer unit of most lipids is a fatty acid.
• 3 fatty acids link to a molecule of glycerol
(an alcohol) to form a triglyceride, aka: fat

Fatty acid
Lipids (con’t)
• Unsaturated fats: have double bonds in
the carbon chain; causes kinks or bends,
thus are liquid at room temp. (plant oils)
• Saturated fats: no double bonds; are
“saturated” with hydrogen atoms; can pack
tightly together, thus are solid at room
temp. (animal fats)
See the difference?
Types of Lipids
• Phospholipids: contain 2 fatty acids
attached to glycerol; a phosphate group is
attached at the third location
– Major component of membranes
Types of Lipids (con’t)
• Steroids: lipids whose carbon skeleton
contains 4 interlocking ring, not fatty acids
– Building block of steroids is cholesterol
• Common component of animal cell membranes
• Is a starting material for other steroids including
sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone)
• Is synthesized by the body
• Anabolic steroids: synthetic testosterone;
major side effects including mood swings, liver
damage, stunted growth, etc…
Functions of lipids
• Long-term energy storage
– Stores about 9 Calories per gram (almost
twice as much as carbohydrates or protein)
• Make up membranes
• Insulation
• Cushions vital organs
• Water repellant or protect surfaces from
drying out (ex. waxes on plant leaves)